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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can produce effects not only at the site of stimulation but also at distant sites to which it projects. Here we examined the connection between supplementary motor area (SMA) and the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1(Hand)) by testing whether prolonged repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the SMA can produce changes in(More)
OBJECTIVE Central fatigue is the inability of central commands to recruit maximum evocable muscle force during voluntary contraction. Here, we investigate how fatigue affects the inhibitory circuits of the motor cortex. METHODS MEPs, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were evaluated using a paired pulse(More)
BACKGROUND It has recently been reported that unilateral fatiguing exercise affects not only the motor area innervating the exercising muscle but also the ipsilateral motor area innervating homologous nonexercised muscle. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to clarify the effects of fatiguing intermittent lower limb exercise on the excitability of the motor(More)
Water immersion is widely used in physiotherapy and may even improve the functional outcomes of hemiplegic patients after stroke. To investigate the cortical responses to water immersion, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure cortical activations in the primary somatosensory area (S1), parietal association area (PAA),(More)
Water immersion therapy is used to treat a variety of cardiovascular, respiratory, and orthopedic conditions. It can also benefit some neurological patients, although little is known about the effects of water immersion on neural activity, including somatosensory processing. To this end, we examined the effect of water immersion on short-latency(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine whether exhaustive grip exercise of the left hand affected intracortical excitability in ipsilateral motor cortex. METHODS Ten healthy male subjects (aged 21-24 years) participated in experiment 1 in which paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to test corticospinal and corticocortical(More)
Previous studies examining the influence of afferent stimulation on corticospinal excitability have demonstrated that the intensity of afferent stimulation and the nature of the afferents targeted (cutaneous/proprioceptive) determine the effects. In this study, we assessed the effects of whole-hand water immersion (WI) and water flow stimulation (WF) on(More)
Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this(More)
Reciprocal inhibition of antagonist muscles is crucial for motor skill learning in humans. However, the changes in reciprocal inhibition function during the motor learning process are unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically observe the changes in reciprocal inhibition function. We investigated the optimal coil position for simultaneously(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of water immersion (WI) on short- and long-latency afferent inhibition (SAI and LAI), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). METHODS Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of fifteen(More)