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We found that the autophagic machinery could effectively eliminate pathogenic group A Streptococcus (GAS) within nonphagocytic cells. After escaping from endosomes into the cytoplasm, GAS became enveloped by autophagosome-like compartments and were killed upon fusion of these compartments with lysosomes. In autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells, GAS survived,(More)
Autophagy plays a crucial role in host defense, termed antimicrobial autophagy (xenophagy), as it functions to degrade intracellular foreign microbial invaders such as group A Streptococcus (GAS). Xenophagosomes undergo a stepwise maturation process consisting of a fusion event with lysosomes, after which the cargoes are degraded. However, the molecular(More)
Autophagy is a tightly regulated intracellular bulk degradation/recycling system that has fundamental roles in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is initiated by isolation membranes, which form and elongate as they engulf portions of the cytoplasm and organelles. Eventually isolation membranes close to form double membrane-bound autophagosomes and fuse with(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that function as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNA maturation is controlled by the DROSHA microprocessor complex. However, the detailed mechanism of miRNA biogenesis remains unclear. We show that the tumor suppressor breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) accelerates the processing of miRNA primary(More)
Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a common pathogen that invades non-phagocytic human cells via endocytosis. Once taken up by cells, it escapes from the endocytic pathway to the cytoplasm, but here it is contained within a membrane-bound structure termed GAS-containing autophagosome-like vacuoles (GcAVs). The autophagosome marker(More)
BACKGROUND Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, expresses a number of virulence factors, including long (FimA) and short (Mfa) fimbriae as well as gingipains comprised of arginine-specific (Rgp) and lysine-specific (Kgp) cysteine proteinases. The aim of this study was to examine the roles of these components in homotypic biofilm development by(More)
BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that is closely associated with multiple factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, other risk factors for the development of NAFLD are unclear. With the association between periodontal disease and the development of(More)
Although several risk factors for stroke have been identified, one-third remain unexplained. Here we show that infection with Streptococcus mutans expressing collagen-binding protein (CBP) is a potential risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke. Infection with serotype k S. mutans, but not a standard strain, aggravates cerebral haemorrhage in mice. Serotype k S.(More)
Marginal periodontitis is not a homogeneous disease but is rather influenced by an intricate set of host susceptibility differences as well as diversities in virulence among the harbored organisms. It is likely that clonal heterogeneity of subpopulations with both high and low levels of pathogenicity exists among organisms harbored by individuals with(More)