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UNLABELLED In 1995, the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) appointed the Committee for the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. The Committee presented a final report in May 1999 in Japanese. This is the English version with minor modifications for readers outside Japan. CONCEPT OF DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus represents a group of diseases(More)
In 1999, the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) launched the previous version of the diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus, in which JDS took initiative in adopting glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. In contrast, in 2009 the International Expert Committee composed of the members of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)(More)
1 The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the Na(+)/K(+) pump current in small (<or=25 microm in soma diameter) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from lumbar L4-6 segments of adult rats. 2. The Na(+)/K(+) pump current was identified as an ouabain-sensitive current during square voltage steps to membrane potentials between +40 and(More)
Diabetic neuropathy is the most common peripheral neuropathy in western countries. Although every effort has been made to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of diabetic neuropathy, thereby devising its ideal therapeutic drugs, neither convinced hypotheses nor unequivocally effective drugs have been established. In view of the pathologic basis for the(More)
The responsiveness of thyroid hormone responsive element (TRE)-containing promoter sequence to thyroid hormone (TH) was studied utilizing Xenopus laevis carrying a transgene containing 5'-upstream region of TRbetaA1 gene and green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. EGFP-expression was seen first in neurulae, which continued to stage 45, then became weak, and(More)
We have reported that a deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), an active cofactor of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), contributes to the endothelial dysfunction through reduced eNOS activity and increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation in the insulin-resistant state. To further confirm this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of dietary(More)
AKT was originally identified as a proto-oncogene with a pleckstrin homology and Ser/Thr protein kinase domains. Recent studies revealed that AKT regulates a variety of cellular functions including cell survival, cell growth, cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, transcription, translation, and cellular metabolism. To clarify the substrate(More)
To clarify the presence of the Rho family of small GTPases p21-activated kinase (pak) signaling pathway in the PNS, we have examined their expression, the association between the small GTPases and pak and the pak kinase activity in the PNS using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation study, and in vitro kinase assay. Immunoblot(More)
To elucidate the direct effect of selective protein kinase Cbeta inhibitor LY333531 on diabetic sensory neurons, we examined intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fura-2. The duration of calcium transients induced by high (50 mM) extracellular K in small diabetic dorsal root(More)
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is implicated as an important mechanism by which diabetes causes vascular complications. We have recently shown that a PKC beta inhibitor ameliorates not only early diabetes-induced glomerular dysfunction such as glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria, but also overexpression of glomerular mRNA for transforming(More)