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Nori, a marine red alga, is one of the most profitable mariculture crops in the world. However, the biological properties of this macroalga are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of susabi-nori (Pyropia yezoensis) using next-generation sequencing platforms. For sequencing, thalli of P. yezoensis(More)
The effect of somatostatin on the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the superfused slices of rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus preloaded with [3H]5-HT was examined. Somatostatin (0.38--1.53 microM) was found to facilitate dose-dependently the electrically- or high K+-stimulated release of [3H]5-HT. The order of the stimulatory potency of(More)
The effects of local anesthetics on the synthesis, release, and degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brains were investigated. The addition of procaine, lidocaine, cocaine, or tetracaine did not alter either glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity or GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activity in vitro. Neither did the enzyme activities in rats(More)
Influences of the manipulation of brain catecholaminergic neuronal activity on the incidence of lidocaine-induced convulsions in mice were studied and compared with those of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions. alpha-Methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) decreased both brain noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels, and disulfiram decreased the NA level(More)
The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the induction of convulsions by local anesthetics were investigated in mice and rats. Intraventricular administration of 0.8-1.6 mg GABA protected rats against convulsions induced by procaine, lidocaine, cocaine, and tetracaine in a dose-related manner. Intraperitoneal gamma-acetylenic GABA was also effective(More)
We have recently identified a tachykinin-related peptide (AmTRP) from the mushroom bodies (MBs) of the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. by using direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectometry and have isolated its cDNA. Here, we have examined prepro-AmTRP gene expression in the honeybee brain by using in situ(More)
To clarify the molecular basis underlying the neural function of the honeybee mushroom bodies (MBs), we identified three genes preferentially expressed in MB using cDNA microarrays containing 480 differential display-positive candidate cDNAs expressed locally or differentially, dependent on caste/aggressive behavior in the honeybee brain. One of the cDNAs(More)
Guanylyl-imidodiphosphate, guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and RO 20-1724 significantly increased the basal cAMP output and caused a slight catecholamine (CA) release. These agents accelerated ACh-induced increase in cAMP output followed by a markedly enhanced CA release. Cholera toxin did not cause(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) increased cyclic AMP levels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells with a peak effect at 1 min after the addition. Pretreatment with forskolin (0.3 microM) enhanced the ACh-evoked cyclic AMP increase. The catecholamine (CA) release induced by ACh was enhanced by forskolin, but forskolin alone did not enhance the CA release. The effect of(More)
Forskolin, 1 microM, increased acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated 45Ca uptake by chromaffin cells. The stimulatory effects of forskolin decreased with increasing concentration of ACh. The attenuation of the effect of forskolin on 45Ca uptake as a function of ACh concentration correlated well with changes in the forskolin effect on ACh-evoked catecholamine (CA)(More)