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OBJECTIVE Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare the amounts of gray matter in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and normal control subjects (NCs) and to identify the specific regions responsible for cognitive dysfunction in PD. METHODS Patients were classified into nondemented (ND) and demented (D) groups according to the criteria(More)
OBJECTIVE Using 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucoce (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the specific brain regions that are related to cognitive and motor symptoms in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS Spatially normalized images of FDOPA influx(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative illness often characterized by asymmetrical symptoms. However, the reason for this asymmetry and the cerebral correlates underlying symptom asymmetry are still not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of levodopa on the cerebral correlates of disease asymmetry have not been investigated. In this study,(More)
We investigated the effect of transient dopamine depletion on functional connectivity during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed as a psychophysiological interaction, a statistical method used to identify functional connectivity during experimental manipulations. Nineteen healthy subjects(More)
We investigated the relative differences in dopaminergic function through the whole brain in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia (PD) and with dementia (PDD) using 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa (18F-dopa) PET and a voxel-by-voxel analysis. The 10 PD and 10 PDD patients were equivalently disabled, having mean scores of 3.2 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.7,(More)
To determine the characteristics of cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease patients with visual hallucinations, group comparison studies using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were performed. Nondemented Parkinson's disease patients in advanced stages were classified into two groups: (1) patients without visual(More)
Task-induced deactivation is frequently reported in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), regions considered to belong to the default mode network. To investigate the effect of dopamine on task-induced deactivation, we used positron emission tomography to measure cerebral blood flow during performance of the Tower(More)
During simple sensorimotor decision making, neurons in the parietal cortex extract evidence from sensory information provided by visual areas until a decision is reached. Contextual information can bias parietal activity during the task and change the decision-making parameters. One type of contextual information is the availability of reward for correct(More)
BACKGROUND In laboratory animals, environmental stressors markedly activate the mesocortical dopamine system. The present study tested whether this occurs in humans. METHODS The effects of a laboratory psychological stressor (Montreal Imaging Stress Task, MIST) on mesocortical dopamine release in healthy young adults (11 males, mean age ± SD, 20.6 ± 2.4(More)
We have previously observed decreased activation of corticostriatal loops involved in planning (cognitive loop) and execution (motor loop) of a set shift in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with control subjects. Here, we aimed to assess whether cognitive impairment in PD could drive these differences. Nondemented patients underwent a(More)