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Neuronal activity regulates the development and maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the mammalian brain. Several recent studies have identified signalling networks within neurons that control excitatory synapse development. However, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity-dependent development of GABA(More)
The development of biocompatible photopolymerizing polymers for biomedical and tissue engineering applications has the potential to reduce the invasiveness and cost of biomaterial implants designed to repair or augment tissues. However, more information is needed about the cellular toxicity of the compounds and initiators used in these systems. The current(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from skeletally mature goats were encapsulated in a photopolymerizing poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel and cultured with or without transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF) to study the potential for chondrogenesis in a hydrogel scaffold system amenable to minimally invasive implantation. Chondrogenic differentiation was(More)
Despite significant heritability of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), their extreme genetic heterogeneity has proven challenging for gene discovery. Studies of primarily simplex families have implicated de novo copy number changes and point mutations, but are not optimally designed to identify inherited risk alleles. We apply whole-exome sequencing (WES) to(More)
Cartilage tissue engineering strategies generally result in homogeneous tissue structures with little resemblance to the native zonal organization of articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to use bilayered photopolymerized hydrogels to organize zone-specific chondrocytes in a stratified framework and study the effects of this three-dimensional(More)
Charged multivesicular body protein 1A (CHMP1A; also known as chromatin-modifying protein 1A) is a member of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III) complex but is also suggested to localize to the nuclear matrix and regulate chromatin structure. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutations in human CHMP1A cause reduced(More)
Organismal development requires the precise coordination of genetic programs to regulate cell fate and function. MEF2 transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in this process but how these broadly expressed factors contribute to the generation of specific cell types during development is poorly understood. Here we show that despite being expressed(More)
Experience-dependent gene transcription is required for nervous system development and function. However, the DNA regulatory elements that control this program of gene expression are not well defined. Here we characterize the enhancers that function across the genome to mediate activity-dependent transcription in mouse cortical neurons. We find that the(More)
EphB receptor tyrosine kinases control multiple steps in nervous system development. However, it remains unclear whether EphBs regulate these different developmental processes directly or indirectly. In addition, given that EphBs signal through multiple mechanisms, it has been challenging to define which signaling functions of EphBs regulate particular(More)