Athanasios Koukopoulos

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OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
The extensive use of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of all forms of depression makes the question of the real nature of agitated depression a crucial issue because many patients have adverse outcomes, including increased agitation, increased insomnia, increased risk of suicide, and sometimes the onset of psychotic symptoms. Agitated depression is no(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the efficacy of olanzapine and lithium in the prevention of mood episode relapse/recurrence. METHOD Patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (manic/mixed), a history of two or more manic or mixed episodes within 6 years, and a Young Mania Rating Scale total score > or =20 entered the study and received open-label(More)
In contemporary psychiatry, depression and mania are conceived as different entities. They may occur together, as in bipolar disorder, or they may occur separately, as in unipolar depression. This view is partly based on a narrow definition of mania and a rather broad definition of depression. Generally, depression is seen as more prominent, common, and(More)
BACKGROUND Mixed depression (MxD) is narrowly defined in the DSM-IV and somewhat broader in the DSM-5, although both exclude psychomotor agitation as a diagnostic criterion. This article proposes a clinical description for defining MxD, which emphasizes psychomotor excitation. METHODS Two hundred and nineteen consecutive outpatients were diagnosed with an(More)
OBJECTIVE The nature of mixed mood episodes is still a matter of controversy amongst experts. Currently, the approach to this syndrome is mainly categorical and very restrictive. The factor-structure of bipolar mood episodes has not been studied yet. We performed a dimensional analysis of the structure of bipolar episodes aimed at identifying a factor(More)
Melancholia, a syndrome with a long history and distinctly specific psychopathological features, is inadequately differentiated from major depression by the DSM-IV specifier. It is neglected in clinical assessment (e.g., in STAR*D [1]) and treatment selection (e.g., in the Texas Medication Algorithm Project [2]). Nevertheless, it possesses a distinctive(More)
This paper focuses on the clinical importance of affective mixed states with special attention given to agitated depression, which has lost its status as a mixed state in the DSM and ICD systems. Following a historical review of the topic, the psychopathological elements are examined. Psychic and motor agitation are considered equally important for the(More)