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OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
The extensive use of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of all forms of depression makes the question of the real nature of agitated depression a crucial issue because many patients have adverse outcomes, including increased agitation, increased insomnia, increased risk of suicide, and sometimes the onset of psychotic symptoms. Agitated depression is no(More)
The DSM system has never acknowledged a central position for mixed states; thus, mixed depressions have been almost completely neglected for decades. Now, DSM-5 is proposing diagnostic criteria for depression with mixed features that will lead to more misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment of this syndrome. Different criteria, based on empirically stronger(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the efficacy of olanzapine and lithium in the prevention of mood episode relapse/recurrence. METHOD Patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (manic/mixed), a history of two or more manic or mixed episodes within 6 years, and a Young Mania Rating Scale total score > or =20 entered the study and received open-label(More)
BACKGROUND Inferior response to lithium treatment has been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients with mania or hypomania following episodes of major depression (DMI) versus preceding depression (MDI), with intervening euthymic periods. However, additional characteristics of BD course-patterns require further assessment. METHODS We reviewed(More)
This paper focuses on the clinical importance of affective mixed states with special attention given to agitated depression, which has lost its status as a mixed state in the DSM and ICD systems. Following a historical review of the topic, the psychopathological elements are examined. Psychic and motor agitation are considered equally important for the(More)
BACKGROUND Recognition by the DSM-IV of rapid cyclicity as a course specifier has raised the question of the stability and long-term outcome of rapid-cycling (RC) patients. Data on this topic is sparse and often inconsistent. To our knowledge, these are the first personally followed patients over the long term, dealing directly with the issue of the(More)
BACKGROUND Early phases and suspected precursor states of bipolar disorder are not well characterized. We evaluate the prevalence, duration, clinical features and predictive value of non-affective psychopathology as clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder in prospective studies. METHODS We screened PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, SCOPUS, and ISI-Web(More)