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1 The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the authors’ institutions. We thank the following people for help and support: Atar Baer, Mick Couper, Jim Esposito, Sarah Jerstad, Yun-Chiao Kang, Dominic Perri, Stanley Presser, Linda Stinson, Deborah Stone, Tim Triplett, Clyde Tucker, Beth Webb and Gordon Willis.
BACKGROUND The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of cryptorchidism is largely unknown. To identify maternal, perinatal, and delivery characteristics associated with cryptorchidism at birth, we conducted a population-based case-control study using Washington State birth certificates linked to birth hospitalization records. METHODS We identified 2,395 cases of cryptorchidism among(More)
Several studies have suggested that the quality of coital data from diaries is superior to that collected by retrospective questionnaires. By collecting data over short intervals of time, diaries can present a more comprehensive picture of exposure, while minimizing the potential for recall bias. Despite these advantages, paper diaries have limited use(More)
OBJECTIVE Estimate the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS A subset of 1,665 women (age range, 18-50 y) participating in a cervical cancer screening study were screened by liquid-based cytology and by(More)
OBJECTIVE Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. DESIGN Clinical(More)
The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on(More)
BACKGROUND Mathematical models suggest that social distancing measures, such as school closures, may mitigate community transmission during an influenza pandemic. Because closures are disruptive to schools and families, they are rarely employed during seasonal influenza outbreaks. A rare circumstance enabled us to examine the association between school(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated emergency department (ED) data, emergency medical services (EMS) data, and public utilities data for describing an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning following a windstorm. METHODS Syndromic ED data were matched against previously collected chart abstraction data. We ran detection algorithms on selected time series derived(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2009, King County, Washington, experienced a sustained outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza A. This report describes the epidemiology of that outbreak in King County, home to a diverse population of 1.9 million people. METHODS The 2 primary sources of data are case investigations of reported laboratory-confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza A and a(More)