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The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses. In contrast, off-target DNA damage caused by AID is oncogenic. Central to balancing immunity and cancer is AID regulation, including the mechanisms(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) triggers antibody class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells by initiating DNA double strand breaks that are repaired by nonhomologous end-joining pathways. A role for AID at the repair step is unclear. We show that specific inactivation of the C-terminal AID domain encoded by exon 5 (E5) allows very efficient deamination(More)
Acrosin is an acrosomal protease synthesized as a proenzyme and activated into beta-acrosin during the acrosome reaction. In the present study, a set of sensitive assays was developed to identify the proacrosin/acrosin system and to evaluate its activation pattern in human sperm extracts. Immunocytochemical analysis with monoclonal antibody (Mab) AcrC5F10(More)
Activation-induced deaminase converts deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine at the Ig loci. Complementary pathways, initiated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or the mismatch repair factor MSH2/MSH6, must process the deoxyuridine to initiate class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation. UNG deficiency most severely reduces CSR efficiency and only(More)
Classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) and alternative end-joining (A-EJ) are the main DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways when a sister chromatid is not available. However, it is not clear how one pathway is chosen over the other to process a given DSB. To address this question, we studied in mouse splenic B cells and CH12F3 cells how(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates mutagenic pathways to diversify the antibody genes during immune responses. The access of AID to the nucleus is limited by CRM1-mediated nuclear export and by an uncharacterized mechanism of cytoplasmic retention. Here, we define a conformational motif in AID that dictates its cytoplasmic retention and(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates antibody gene diversification by creating G:U mismatches in the immunoglobulin loci. However, AID also deaminates nonimmunoglobulin genes, and failure to faithfully repair these off-target lesions can cause B cell lymphoma. In this study, we identify a mechanism by which processing of G:U produced by AID at the(More)
Activation induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the Ig genes in antigen-activated B cells, underpinning antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. AID can also be pathogenic by contributing to autoimmune diseases and oncogenic mutations. Moreover, AID can exert noncanonical functions when(More)
Activation-induced deaminase converts deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine at the Ig loci. Complementary pathways, initiated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or the mismatch repair factor MSH2/MSH6, must process the deoxyuridine to initiate class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation. UNG deficiency most severely reduces CSR efficiency and only(More)
Autoimmune diseases result from a break in immune tolerance leading to an attack on self-antigens. Autoantibody levels serve as a predictive tool for the early diagnosis of many autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. We find that a genetic locus on mouse chromosome 12 influences the affinity maturation of antibodies as well as autoantibody(More)
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