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The proteasome forms the core of the protein quality control system in archaea and eukaryotes and also occurs in one bacterial lineage, the Actinobacteria. Access to its proteolytic compartment is controlled by AAA ATPases, whose N-terminal domains (N domains) are thought to mediate substrate recognition. The N domains of an archaeal proteasomal ATPase,(More)
In a previous study, we used the genome of serogroup B Meningococcus to identify novel vaccine candidates. One of these molecules, GNA33, is well conserved among Meningococcus B strains, other Meningococcus serogroups and Gonococcus and induces bactericidal antibodies as a result of being a mimetic antigen of the PorA epitope P1.2. GNA33 encodes a 48-kDa(More)
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidases are widely distributed among bacteria. However, in Escherichia coli, only one periplasmic amidase has been described until now, which is suggested to play a role in murein recycling. Here, we report that three amidases, named AmiA, B and C, exist in E. coli and that they are involved in splitting of the murein septum(More)
The multiplicity of murein hydrolases found in most bacteria presents an obstacle to demonstrating the necessity of these potentially autolytic enzymes. Therefore, Escherichia coli mutants with deletions in multiple murein hydrolases, including lytic transglycosylases, amidases, and DD-endopeptidases, were constructed. Even a mutant from which seven(More)
Construction of a malE-ampD gene fusion allowed purification of biologically active fusion protein by affinity chromatography. The cloned malE-ampD gene fusion complemented a chromosomal ampD mutation. Purified MalE-AmpD fusion protein was found to have murein amidase activity with a pronounced specificity for 1,6-anhydromuropeptides, the characteristic(More)
The binding of the essential cell division protein FtsN of Escherichia coli to the murein (peptidoglycan) sacculus was studied. Soluble truncated variants of FtsN, including the complete periplasmic part of the protein as well as a variant containing only the C-terminal 77 amino acids, did bind to purified murein sacculi isolated from wild-type cells. FtsN(More)
A membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt) has been solubilized in the presence of 2% Triton X-100 containing 0.5 M NaCl from membranes of an Escherichia coli mutant that carries a deletion in the slt gene coding for a 70-kDa soluble lytic transglycosylase (Slt70). The enzyme was purified by a four-step procedure including anion-exchange (HiLoad(More)
The first gene of a family of prokaryotic proteases with a specificity for L,D-configured peptide bonds has been identified in Escherichia coli. The gene named ldcA encodes a cytoplasmic L, D-carboxypeptidase, which releases the terminal D-alanine from L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanine containing turnover products of the cell wall polymer(More)
The chain length distribution of murein glycan strands was analyzed in wild-type cells and in cells in which preseptal and/or septal murein synthesis was prevented in ftsZ84 and ftsI36 mutants of E. coli. This revealed a significant change in glycan chain lengths in newly synthesized murein associated with inactivation of the ftsZ gene product but not with(More)
The interaction of murein hydrolases and synthases was studied by affinity chromatography. The lytic transglycosylases Slt70 and MltB of E. coli were purified and covalently linked to CNBr-activated Sepharose. Membrane extracts were analyzed for proteins that interact with the immobilized murein hydrolases. Slt70-Sepharose was found to retain the PBPs 1b,(More)