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Synapses are specialized intercellular junctions in which cell adhesion molecules connect the presynaptic machinery for neurotransmitter release to the postsynaptic machinery for receptor signalling. Neurotransmitter release requires the presynaptic co-assembly of Ca2+ channels with the secretory apparatus, but little is known about how synaptic components(More)
The multifunctional low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) has been postulated to participate in a number of diverse physiological and pathological processes ranging from the homeostasis of plasma lipoproteins, atherosclerosis, and fibrinolysis to neuronal regeneration and survival. It has not been possible to demonstrate in vivo the(More)
Alpha-neurexins are synaptic cell-surface molecules that are required for Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Mice lacking all three alpha-neurexins show drastically reduced neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses and die early postnatally. Although previous histological analysis of newborn alpha-neurexin triple mutants revealed only a(More)
The development of neuronal networks in the brain requires the differentiation of functional synapses. Neurobeachin (Nbea) was identified as a putative regulator of membrane protein trafficking associated with tubulovesicular endomembranes and postsynaptic plasma membranes. Nbea is essential for evoked transmission at neuromuscular junctions, but its role(More)
Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is an autosomal dominant episodic movement disorder precipitated by coffee, alcohol, and stress. We previously identified the causative gene but the function of the encoded protein remains unknown. We also generated a PNKD mouse model that revealed dysregulated dopamine signaling in vivo. Here, we show that PNKD(More)
Neurexins constitute a large family of highly variable cell-surface molecules that may function in synaptic transmission and/or synapse formation. Each of the three known neurexin genes encodes two major neurexin variants, alpha- and beta-neurexins, that are composed of distinct extracellular domains linked to identical intracellular sequences. Deletions of(More)
Two families of cell-adhesion molecules, predominantly presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic neuroligins, are important for the formation and functioning of synapses in the brain, and mutations in several genes encoding these transmembrane proteins have been found in autism patients. However, very little is known about how neurexins are targeted to(More)
The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor that is highly expressed on neurons. Neuronal LRP1 in vitro can mediate ligand endocytosis, as well as modulate signal transduction processes. However, little is known about its role in the intact nervous system. Here, we report that mice that lack LRP1 selectively in(More)
Human genetics has identified rare copy number variations and deleterious mutations for all neurexin genes (NRXN1-3) in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases, and electrophysiological recordings in animal brains have shown that Nrxns are important for synaptic transmission. While several mouse models for Nrxn1α inactivation have previously been studied(More)
Neurexophilin 3 (Nxph3) is a specific ligand of synaptic alpha-neurexins that are essential for efficient neurotransmitter release. Previous biochemical work demonstrated that Nxph3 interacts with an extracellular domain of alpha-neurexins in a tight complex; however, no information is available on the localization or functional role of Nxph3 in the brain.(More)