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We developed a degenerate PCR procedure to simultaneously amplify products from divergent retrotransposon families within the genomes of Anopheles mosquitoes. The procedure required cloning of multiple PCR products, but more than half of the clones subsequently sequenced were of retrotransposon origin. These included Copia-like and LINE retrotransposons, as(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d'Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic(More)
BACKGROUND Many efforts have been made to understand basal mechanisms of mycobacterial infections. Macrophages are the first line of host immune defence to encounter and eradicate mycobacteria. Pathogenic species have evolved different mechanisms to evade host response, e.g. by influencing macrophage apoptotic pathways. However, the underlying molecular(More)
The quantification of slow-growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis from in vitro and in vivo samples is complicated by their long generation time, their ability to form aggregates, and their capacity to persist in a state of dormancy. We compared different methods for the establishment of growth curves for broth cultures of M.(More)
The plasmid content of apathogenic Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains was determined and the plasmids were compared with the virulence plasmid of a pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strain. About 38% of the selected biovar 1A strains contained plasmids of different sizes ranging from 2.7 kb to more than 70 kb. Some of the larger plasmids had a size similar to(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen that has evolved survival mechanisms to persist in an immune-competent host under a dormant condition. The regulation of M. tuberculosis metabolism during latent infection is not clearly known. The dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) is chiefly responsible for encoding dormancy related functions of(More)
From 1995 to 1997 several defined species like V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. cholerae (non O1 and non O139), V. mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were isolated during a survey to determine the presence of V. vulnificus in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea in Germany. Moreover atypical Vibrio isolates were detected. Four isolates(More)
UNLABELLED The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria found in soil, water and dust. The spread of NTM infection depends on the exposure to reservoirs with high proportions of mycobacteria, the virulence of the NTM strains, the enhanced sensitivity to infections such as those of immune-compromised hosts and patient risk(More)
During evolution the promoter elements from prokaryotes and eukaryotes have developed differently with regard to their sequence and structure, implying that in general a transfer of eukaryotic promoter sequences into prokaryotes will not cause an efficient gene expression. However, there have been reports on the functionality of the 35S promoter from(More)
BACKGROUND The expression of recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells requires the fusion of the coding region to a promoter functional in the eukaryotic cell line. Viral promoters are very often used for this purpose. The preceding cloning procedures are usually performed in Escherichia coli and it is therefore of interest if the foreign promoter results(More)