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During the past decades, it became obvious that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exert a multitude of biological effects covering a wide spectrum that ranges from physiological regulatory functions to damaging alterations participating in the pathogenesis of increasing number of diseases. This review summarizes the key roles played by the ROS in both health(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers of obesity and insulin resistance in middle-aged adult male and female Arabs with and without diabetes mellitus type 2(More)
OBJECTIVE Resistance to obesity is observed in rodents and humans treated with rapamycin (Rap) or nebivolol (Neb). Because cardiac miR-208a promotes obesity, this study tested whether the modes of actions of Rap and Neb involve inhibition of miR-208a. METHODS Mouse cardiomyocyte HL-1 cells and Zucker obese (ZO) rats were used to investigate regulation of(More)
Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular(More)
A role for mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) in thermogenesis was investigated in transgenic mice lacking the mGPD gene (mGPD-/-). Reared and studied at 22 C, these mice have a small, but significant, reduction (7-10%) in energy expenditure, as evidenced by oxygen consumption (QO2) and food intake, and show signs of increased brown(More)
Studies have demonstrated that total osteocalcin (TOC) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore might influence the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC) regulates insulin secretion and sensitivity in mice, but its relation to MetS in humans is unclear. We aimed to determine whether uOC is related to(More)
It is now well established that not all obese subjects are at increased risk of cardiometabolic complications; such patients are termed the metabolically healthy obese. Despite their higher-than-normal body fat mass, they are still insulin sensitive, with a favorable inflammatory and lipid profile and no signs of hypertension. It remains unclear which(More)
Overweight (OW) and obese individuals are considered to be graded parts of the scale having increasing weight as a common feature. They may not, however, be part of the same continuum and may differ metabolically. In this study we applied an untargeted proteomic approach to compare protein abundances in mature adipocytes derived from the subcutaneous(More)
BACKGROUND There is rapid increase in the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), as in other countries. An optimal care of diabetic patients depends on the health care providers as well as the type of health care setting. Due to the severity of chronic complications in Type 2 diabetic patients, it is essential to assess(More)
Obesity and aging are interrelated conditions that both cause changes in adipocyte metabolism and affect the distribution of fat in both subcutaneous and visceral depots. In addition, both weight gain and aging can lead to similar clinical outcomes such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and stroke. Our(More)