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During the past decades, it became obvious that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exert a multitude of biological effects covering a wide spectrum that ranges from physiological regulatory functions to damaging alterations participating in the pathogenesis of increasing number of diseases. This review summarizes the key roles played by the ROS in both health(More)
Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers of obesity and insulin resistance in middle-aged adult male and female Arabs with and without diabetes mellitus type 2(More)
Systemic low-grade chronic inflammation has been intensively investigated in obese subjects. Recently, various immune cell types, such as macrophages, granulocytes, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and B cells, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of adipose tissue inflammation. However, the roles of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) and(More)
Studies have demonstrated that total osteocalcin (TOC) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore might influence the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC) regulates insulin secretion and sensitivity in mice, but its relation to MetS in humans is unclear. We aimed to determine whether uOC is related to(More)
BACKGROUND Thiamine deficiency has been linked to microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we aim to assess blood and urine thiamine status by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in patients with DM Type 1 and Type 2 (DMT1, DMT2) and to identify associations with markers of incipient nephropathy and(More)
OBJECTIVE Resistance to obesity is observed in rodents and humans treated with rapamycin (Rap) or nebivolol (Neb). Because cardiac miR-208a promotes obesity, this study tested whether the modes of actions of Rap and Neb involve inhibition of miR-208a. METHODS Mouse cardiomyocyte HL-1 cells and Zucker obese (ZO) rats were used to investigate regulation of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of statins on the circulatory levels of neutrophil chemokines, namely, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 GCP-2, growth regulated oncogene-alpha GRO-alpha and epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 ENA-78 in patients with diabetes. METHODS We studied 91 diabetic patients 46 were statin-treated and 45 were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether clinical and biochemical features of Graves' disease at presentation predict response to medical and radioiodine treatment. METHODS We carried out a retrospective 10-year study of 194 consecutive Saudi subjects with Graves' disease who were treated with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine therapy, or both, between January 1995(More)
Orosomucoid (ORM), also called alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, is an abundant plasma protein that is an immunomodulator induced by stressful conditions such as infections. In this study, we reveal that Orm is induced selectively in the adipose tissue of obese mice to suppress excess inflammation that otherwise disturbs energy homeostasis. Adipose Orm levels were(More)