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BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and has been implicated in pathogenesis of pulmonary, oral and systemic diseases. Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for the developing fetus and may be a major cause of infant mortality. Moreover, the oral cavity, and all cells within are the first to be exposed to cigarette(More)
An isolated IgA-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia can present a diagnostic challenge. When a routine direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, further testing with monospecific antisera should be performed. As with IgG-mediated WAIHA, steroids are first-line treatment, though splenectomy is often required to achieve(More)
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