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In tailed bacteriophages and herpes viruses, the viral DNA is packaged through the portal protein channel. Channel closure is essential to prevent DNA release after packaging. Here we present the connector structure from bacteriophage SPP1 using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle analysis. The multiprotein complex comprises the portal protein gp6(More)
The virulent Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 packages its DNA from a precursor concatemer by a headful mechanism. Following disruption of mature virions with chelating agents the chromosome end produced by the headful cut remains stably bound to the phage tail. Cleavage of this tail-chromosome complex with restriction endonucleases that recognize(More)
Runx2 is an essential factor for skeletogenesis and heterozygous loss causes cleidocranial dysplasia in humans and a corresponding phenotype in the mouse. Homozygous Runx2-deficient mice lack hypertrophic cartilage and bone. We compared the expression profiles of E14.5 wildtype and Runx2(-/-) murine embryonal humeri to identify new transcripts potentially(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the B. subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is described. The genome is 44,007 bp in size and has a base composition of 43.7% dG + dC. Only 32.2 kb are essential for phage amplification under laboratory conditions. Transcription using only the 'heavy strand' is asymmetric. Eighty-one orfs organized in five early and four late(More)
Poly-alanine (Ala) tract expansions in transcription factors have been shown to be associated with human birth defects such as malformations of the brain, the digits, and other structures. Expansions of a poly-Ala tract from 15 to 22 (+7)-29 (+14) Ala in Hoxd13, for example, result in the limb malformation synpolydactyly in humans and in mice(More)
A recN- (recN1) strain of Bacillus subtilis was constructed. The effects of this and recF, recH and addAB mutations on recombination proficiency were tested. Mutations in the recN, recF, recH and addAB genes, when present in an otherwise Rec+ B. subtilis strain, did not affect genetic exchange. Strains carrying different combinations of mutations in these(More)
The procapsid of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is formed by the major capsid protein gp13, the scaffolding protein gp11, the portal protein gp6, and the accessory protein gp7. The protein stoichiometry suggests a T=7 symmetry for the SPP1 procapsid. Overexpression of SPP1 procapsid proteins in Escherichia coli leads to formation of biologically(More)
The skeleton is one of the most important features for the reconstruction of vertebrate phylogeny but few data are available to understand its molecular origin. In mammals the Runt genes are central regulators of skeletogenesis. Runx2 was shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation, tooth development, and bone formation. Both Runx2 and Runx3 are(More)
Genetic evidence suggests that the Bacillus subtilis recR gene product is involved in DNA repair and recombination. To assign a biochemical function to the recR gene product, the RecR protein was labeled and purified by monitoring the radioactive label. NH2-terminal protein sequence analysis of RecR was consistent with the deduced amino acid sequence of the(More)
The Bacillus subtilis RecR protein is required for DNA repair and recombination in vivo. In its N-terminal portion, RecR possesses potential zinc-ligand structures associated with the multicysteine (C4) superfamily. The number and arrangement of the cysteine residues is suggestive of RecR being a zinc-finger protein. One of the four cysteines (Cys-60) has(More)