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DNA sequencing studies indicate that only one of two closely linked human embryonic alpha-like globin genes, zeta (zeta), encodes a functional polypeptide. The other is a pseudogene (psi zeta) that differs by only 3 bp in the protein coding sequence, one of which converts the codon for amino acid 6 into a chain termination codon. Both zeta-globin genes(More)
Initiation of translation of the RNA genomes of picornaviruses such as poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus is cap-independent and results from interaction of ribosomes with a segment of the 5' noncoding region of these mRNAs termed the internal ribosomal entry site. Genetic and biochemical studies have previously shown that a 57-kDa cytoplasmic(More)
We constructed and analyzed a synthetic poly(A) (SPA) site that was based on the highly efficient poly(A) signal of the rabbit beta-globin gene. By use of the SPA, we demonstrate that the minimum sequences required for efficient polyadenylation are the AATAAA sequence and a GT/T-rich sequence with the correct spacing of 22-23 nucleotides between them. When(More)
The polypyrimidine tract of mammalian introns is recognized by a 62-kD protein (pPTB). Mutations in the polypyrimidine tract that reduce the binding of pPTB also reduce the efficiency of formation of the pre-spliceosome complex containing U2 snRNP. The PTB protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on a matrix containing poly(U), and(More)
We previously demonstrated that a critical 35 bp region 3' of the AAUAAA is required for rabbit beta-globin mRNA 3' end formation. Recently, we synthesized and tested sequence elements derived from this region. Here, we report that a GU-rich and a U-rich sequence element are both required for efficient rabbit beta-globin mRNA 3' end formation. The(More)
Translation of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) mRNA occurs in a cap-independent manner, requiring instead a cis-acting element termed the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Binding of a 57-kDa ribosome-associated protein (p57) to the EMCV IRES has been found to correlate with cap-independent translation. p57 has recently been reported to be very(More)
The sequence AAUAAA, found 11-30 base pairs (bp) upstream of the poly(A) site of most non-histone eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) forms an essential part of the recognition site for 3'-end processing of the primary transcript. However, the sequence AATAAA is found in transcribed regions of genes and is differentially utilized in genes containing multiple(More)
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