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A poorly understood neural circuit in the brain stem controls swallowing. This experiment studied the swallowing circuit in the rat brain stem by means of fos immunocytochemistry. The fos protein is a marker of activated neurons, and under experimental conditions, repetition of a behavior causes the fos protein to be produced in the neurons involved in that(More)
Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of four neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2-year-old human, a newborn(More)
OBJECTIVES : Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) reduces disabling muscle contraction in numerous disorders with muscle overactivity. While motor endplates are the primary site of action for BoNT, their location is unknown in most human muscles. This study localized the motor endplate bands (MEB) within human biceps brachii (BB) muscles in relation to external(More)
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