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BACKGROUND M Mode echocardiograms can be measured by two different conventions. In addition, normal limits of echocardiographic measurements have customarily been stratified according to age or body surface area. There is therefore a need to develop a more easily managed approach to calculating normal limits of measurements for the two conventions, one of(More)
During an 8-month period, 86 consecutive infants and children under 2 years of age underwent palliative or corrective cardiac surgery, of whom 11 subsequently developed phrenic nerve injury (PNI). This was seen most frequently following classic or modified Blalock-Taussig shunts. The diagnosis was established by ultrasound screening of the diaphragm, and(More)
Four infants and children with anomalous connection of the left coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk were studied with colour Doppler flow mapping. In three the diagnosis was only suspected when the colour Doppler study showed dilated intraseptal and epicardial vessels and an abnormal flow signal into the pulmonary artery in diastole; this latter signal(More)
Continuous wave Doppler ultrasound was used in vitro to assess the pressure differences across four different cardiac bioprosthetic valves in a pulsatile flow test apparatus. Valves were tested under four different flow conditions. Pressure differences were calculated from the maximum flow velocity measured by Doppler ultrasound and correlated well with the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine long term morbidity and mortality following atrial inflow corrective procedures for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and to investigate factors that influence morbidity and mortality. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from a single centre. SETTING Cardiology and cardiothoracic surgical unit in a large tertiary referral(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine autonomic function as assessed by heart rate variability in patients 10 or more years after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and to relate this to cardiac structure, function, and electrocardiographic indices. METHODS Heart rate variability was measured by standard time domain techniques on a 24 hour Holter ECG in 28 patients, aged 12(More)
A 9-year-old boy with mental deterioration and epilepsy suffered an acute attack of hereditary coproporphyria associated with worsening of seizure control. Leucocyte coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was undetectable in the patient during this attack, and was reduced in his mother, a latent case. The complex relationship between porphyria, epilepsy, and(More)
A study of more than 1,780 neonates, infants, and children was carried out, using a digital electrocardiograph with a sampling rate of 500 per second, to revise the normal limits of the pediatric ECG. The 12-lead ECG was used with V4R replacing V3. All leads were recorded simultaneously off-line in digital form on magnetic tape and were subsequently(More)
To test the hypothesis that haemoglobin concentration is a poor predictor of benefit from transfusion in preterm infants, and that red cell volume is the most important indicator of anaemia, 24 preterm infants receiving red cell transfusions had red cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, and cardiac output measured before and after transfusion. Red cell(More)