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Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are essential components of the nuclear pre-mRNA processing machinery. A hallmark of these particles is a ring-shaped core domain generated by the binding of Sm proteins onto snRNA. PRMT5 and SMN complexes mediate the formation of the core domain in vivo. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism of this(More)
In vertebrates, assembly of spliceosomal uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (UsnRNPs) is mediated by the SMN complex, a macromolecular entity composed of the proteins SMN and Gemins 2-8. Here we have studied the evolution of this machinery using complete genome assemblies of multiple model organisms. The SMN complex has gained complexity in(More)
Spliceosomal Uridine-rich small ribonucleo protein (U snRNP) assembly is an active process mediated by the macromolecular survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. This complex contains the SMN protein and six additional proteins, named Gemin2-7, according to their localization to nuclear structures termed gems. Here, we provide biochemical evidence for the(More)
Assembly of the Sm-class of U-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (U snRNPs) is a process facilitated by the macromolecular survival of motor neuron (SMN) complex. This entity promotes the binding of a set of factors, termed LSm/Sm proteins, onto snRNA to form the core structure of these particles. Nine factors, including the SMN protein, the(More)
Degenerated motor neurons in the spinal cord are the pathological hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is caused by mutations in the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which lead to reduced levels of functional SMN protein. Many different functions have been assigned to SMN, including assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs),(More)
Mutations that affect pre-mRNA processing are the cause for many genetic diseases. Most such mutations target cis-acting regulatory sequences in a given transcript, thus preventing its proper maturation. Only recently however, mutations in trans-acting factors involved in pre-mRNA processing have likewise been linked to disease. One prominent example is(More)
Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) represent key constituents of major and minor spliceosomes. snRNPs contain a common core, composed of seven Sm proteins bound to snRNA, which forms in a step-wise and factor-mediated reaction. The assembly chaperone pICln initially mediates the formation of an otherwise unstable pentameric Sm protein unit. This(More)
Molecular machines or macromolecular complexes are supramolecular assemblies of biomolecules with a variety of functions. Structure determination of these complexes in a purified state is often tedious owing to their compositional complexity and the associated relative structural instability. To improve the stability of macromolecular complexes in vitro, we(More)
The survival motor neuron (SMN) complex is a macromolecular machine comprising 9 core proteins: SMN, Gemins2-8 and unrip in vertebrates. It performs tasks in RNA metabolism including the cytoplasmic assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). The SMN complex also localizes to the nucleus, where it accumulates in Cajal Bodies(More)
The proteasome is a validated target for anticancer therapy, and proteasome inhibition is employed in the clinic for the treatment of tumors and hematological malignancies. Here, we describe crystal structures of the native human 20S proteasome and its complexes with inhibitors, which either are drugs approved for cancer treatment or are in clinical trials.(More)