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To execute a movement, the CNS must appropriately select and activate the set of muscles that will produce the desired movement. This problem is particularly difficult because a variety of muscle subsets can usually be used to produce the same joint motion. The motor system is therefore faced with a motor redundancy problem that must be resolved to produce(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride in preventing white spot lesion (WSL) demineralization during orthodontic treatment and compare all modes of fluoride delivery. DATA SOURCES The search strategy for the review was carried out according to the standard Cochrane systematic review methodology. The following databases were searched for RCTs(More)
BACKGROUND White spots can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brace attachments. Fluoride is effective at reducing decay in susceptible individuals and is routinely prescribed in various different forms to patients during orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride in preventing(More)
Change in behavior and neural activity in skill acquisition suggests that control is transferred from cortical planning areas (e.g., the prefrontal cortex, PFC) to the basal ganglia (BG). Planning has large computational and representational requirements but requires little experience with a task. The BG are thought to employ a simpler control scheme and(More)
UNLABELLED Owing to a shortage in the orthodontic workforce in the United Kingdom, general dental practitioners carry out orthodontic treatment in selected cases. Orthodontic treatment may not always be successful due to various factors. Some of these limiting factors are related to the practitioner, others to the patients and the orthodontic appliances(More)
Digital images provide an efficient means of processing and storing clinical images and are increasingly being used in orthodontic practice. However, for research purposes it must be shown that measurements from digital images are as reliable as those from captured slides, particularly in the area of postorthodontic demineralization. The aim of this in(More)
BACKGROUND The permanent canine tooth in the upper (maxillary) jaw sometimes does not erupt into the mouth correctly. In about 1% to 3% of the population these teeth will be diverted into the roof of the mouth (palatally). It has been suggested that if the deciduous canine is removed at the right time this palatal eruption might be avoided. OBJECTIVES To(More)