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To execute a movement, the CNS must appropriately select and activate the set of muscles that will produce the desired movement. This problem is particularly difficult because a variety of muscle subsets can usually be used to produce the same joint motion. The motor system is therefore faced with a motor redundancy problem that must be resolved to produce(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride in preventing white spot lesion (WSL) demineralization during orthodontic treatment and compare all modes of fluoride delivery. DATA SOURCES The search strategy for the review was carried out according to the standard Cochrane systematic review methodology. The following databases were searched for RCTs(More)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the co-chairs of my thesis committee, Rod Grupen and Andy Fagg, for their help during my graduate school career. Although many of the ideas in this thesis derive from Rod's vision, I was fortunate to hear perspectives from two professors who love the field and their work. Rod's gift is a profound intuition about how(More)
In executing a voluntary movement, one is faced with the problem of translating a specification of the movement in task space (e.g., a visual goal) into a muscle-recruitment pattern. Among many brain regions, the primary motor cortex (MI) plays a prominent role in the specification of movements. In what coordinate frame MI represents movement has been a(More)
BACKGROUND White spots can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brace attachments. Fluoride is effective at reducing decay in susceptible individuals and is routinely prescribed in various different forms to patients during orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride in preventing(More)
BACKGROUND Palatal canines are upper permanent canine (eye) teeth that have become displaced in the roof of the mouth. They are a frequently occurring anomaly, present in 2% to 3% of the population. Management of this problem is both time consuming and expensive and involves surgical exposure (uncovering) followed by fixed braces for 2 to 3 years to bring(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between the shape of mandibular incisor crowns and crowding. Study models of 50 untreated white subjects (25 men and 25 women) with varying degrees of crowding were studied. The lower incisors were sectioned and imaged at the contact point and midpoint levels, and the mesiodistal width was measured.(More)
Exploit excess DOFs to best solve multiple subtasks in sequence or concurrently For a given subtask, the coarticulated strategy may q q Coarticulation Often, a complex motor task can be decomposed into a set sequence of subtasks. When there is redundancy in how each subtask is performed, we choose a way that tends to be best for the overall task. This(More)