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NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a key player in the network of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzymes. It catalyzes the production of superoxide (O2(-)), that in turn regulates a wide range of biological functions in a broad range of organisms. Plant Noxes are known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) and are homologs of catalytic subunit of(More)
The objective was to evaluate the transdermal delivery of the 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist, sumatriptan from an iontophoretic patch system, in vivo. Initial in vitro experiments were conducted to optimize formulation parameters prior to iontophoretic delivery in Yorkshire swine. It was found in vitro that increasing drug load in the patch from 9.7 to 39 mg had no(More)
During an investigation of the disease profile of Withania somnifera, it was observed that leaf spot is the most prevalent disease. Repeated isolations from infected leaf tissues and pathogenicity tests showed the association of fungal pathogen identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Scanning electron microscopy showed various histological(More)
A novel method for the direct fabrication of arrays of micropatterned polymeric and carbon nanofiber structures on any substrate is developed. First SU-8, an epoxy-based negative photoresist, is electrospun under optimized conditions to produce a layer of polymeric nanofibers. Next, this nanofibrous mat is micropatterned using photolithography, and finally,(More)
In economically developed countries, mortality increases distinctly during winter. Many causes have been suggested, including light-dark cycles, temperature/weather, and infectious agents. The authors analyzed monthly mortality in the United States during the period 1959-1999 for four major disease classes. The authors isolated the seasonal component of(More)
Transdermal drug delivery via iontophoresis is reviewed with special focus on the delivery of lidocaine for local anesthesia and fentanyl for patient controlled acute therapy such as postoperative pain. The role of the microprocessor controller in achieving dosimetry, alternating/reverse polarity, pre-programmed, and sensor-based delivery is highlighted.(More)
A time-frequency spectral representation (TFSR) has been used to study the nonstationary information in the EEG as an aid in determining the anesthetic depth. This paper uses a TFSR with an exponential weighting function for the purpose. Raw EEG data were collected from 10 mongrel dogs at various levels of halothane anesthesia. Depth of anesthesia was(More)
The objective was to investigate the transdermal delivery kinetics of zolmitriptan from an iontophoretic patch system in Yorkshire swine in vivo. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that cumulative drug transport during a 6-h current application (0.25 mA cm(-2)) was independent of patch load (263.7+/-92.7, 357.2+/-85.9, 374.9+/-74.3 and 335.9+/-27.7(More)
Natural adhesives in the feet of different arthropods and vertebrates show strong adhesion as well as excellent reusability. Whereas the hierarchical structures on the surface are known to have a substantial effect on adhesion, the role of subsurface structures such as the network of microchannels has not been studied. Inspired by these bioadhesives, we(More)
This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The(More)