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We have shown previously that pretreatment with l-carnitine (LC) prior to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) exposure, while not significantly attenuating succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibition, prevented hypothermia and oxidative stress. The plant and fungal toxin, 3-NPA, acts as an inhibitor of mitochondrial function via irreversible inactivation of the(More)
A number of strategies using the nutritional approach are emerging for the protection of the brain from damage caused by metabolic toxins, age, or disease. Neural dysfunction and metabolic imbalances underlie many diseases, and the inclusion of metabolic modifiers may provide an alternative and early intervention approach that may prevent further damage.(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and dopamine (DA) system genes is responsive to 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) neurotoxic effects and to the neuroprotective effects of the mitochondrial enhancer, L-carnitine (LC), in the rat striatum. Inactivation of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) by 3-NPA(More)
Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 3-ni-tropropionic acid (3-NPA) at 30 mg/kg or methamphetamine (METH) at 20 mg/kg alone or following pretreatment with L-cartnitine (LC) at 100 mg/kg. Rectal temperature was measured before and 4 h following treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 4 h posttreatment. Monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA)(More)
L-Carnitine (L-C) is a naturally occurring quaternary ammonium compound endogenous in all mammalian species and is a vital cofactor for the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are utilized as an energy substrate in all tissues, and although glucose is the main energetic substrate in adult brain, fatty acids have also been shown to be(More)
Exposure to the natural pesticide, rotenone, a potent mitochondrial toxin, leads to degeneration in striatal nerve terminals and nigral neurons. Rotenone-induced behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological changes in rats mimic those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, protective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the brain dopaminergic(More)
The damage to the central nervous system that is observed after administration of either methamphetamine (METH) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the neurotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), is known to be linked to dopamine (DA). The underlying neurotoxicity mechanism for both METH and MPP+ seem to involve free(More)
There is growing evidence that suggests that brain injury after amphetamine and methamphetamine (METH) administration is due to an increase in free radical formation and mitochondrial damage, which leads to a failure of cellular energy metabolism followed by a secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal degeneration caused by drugs of abuse is also associated with(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with an elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. L-carnitine plays an integral role in attenuating the brain injury associated with mitochondrial(More)
Diet in human health is no longer simple nutrition, but in light of recent research, especially nutrigenomics, it is linked via evolution and genetics to cell health status capable of modulating apoptosis, detoxification, and appropriate gene response. Nutritional deficiency and disease especially lack of vitamins and minerals is well known, but more(More)