Ashraf Virmani

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L-Carnitine (L-C) is a naturally occurring quaternary ammonium compound endogenous in all mammalian species and is a vital cofactor for the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are utilized as an energy substrate in all tissues, and although glucose is the main energetic substrate in adult brain, fatty acids have also been shown to be(More)
Some of the damage to the CNS that is observed following amphetamine and methamphetamine (METH) administration is known to be linked to increased formation of free radicals. This increase could be, in part, related to mitochondrial dysfunction and/or cause damage to the mitochondria, thereby leading to a failure of cellular energy metabolism and an increase(More)
There is growing evidence that suggests that brain injury after amphetamine and methamphetamine (METH) administration is due to an increase in free radical formation and mitochondrial damage, which leads to a failure of cellular energy metabolism followed by a secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal degeneration caused by drugs of abuse is also associated with(More)
A plant and fungal toxin, 3-NPA, acts as an inhibitor of mitochondrial function via irreversible inactivation of the mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Inhibition of SDH disturbs electron transport and leads to cellular energy deficits and neuronal injury. We have shown that pretreatment with l-carnitine, while not(More)
Diet in human health is no longer simple nutrition, but in light of recent research, especially nutrigenomics, it is linked via evolution and genetics to cell health status capable of modulating apoptosis, detoxification, and appropriate gene response. Nutritional deficiency and disease especially lack of vitamins and minerals is well known, but more(More)
Encephalopathy is evidenced as an altered mental state with various neurological symptoms, such as memory and cognitive problems. The type of a substance-evoked encephalopathy will depend on the drug, substance, or combination being abused. The categories into which we could place the various abused substances could be tentatively divided into stimulants,(More)
The carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system is a multiprotein complex with catalytic activity localized within a core represented by CPT1 and CPT2 in the outer and inner membrane of the mitochondria, respectively. Two proteins, the acyl-CoA synthase and a translocase also form part of this system. This system is crucial for the mitochondrial(More)
Dietary agents are receiving much attention for the chemoprevention of cancer. While curcumin is known to influence several pathways and affect tumor growth in vivo, carnitin and its congeners play a variety of important metabolic functions: are involved in the oxydation of long-chain fatty acids, regulate acyl-CoA levels and influence protein activity and(More)
The damage to the central nervous system that is observed after administration of either methamphetamine (METH) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the neurotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), is known to be linked to dopamine (DA). The underlying neurotoxicity mechanism for both METH and MPP+ seem to involve free(More)
A number of strategies using the nutritional approach are emerging for the protection of the brain from damage caused by metabolic toxins, age, or disease. Neural dysfunction and metabolic imbalances underlie many diseases, and the inclusion of metabolic modifiers may provide an alternative and early intervention approach that may prevent further damage.(More)