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Improving national prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services in South Africa has been challenging. PMTCT outcomes were analysed at 58 primary and secondary level antenatal facilities across seven high HIV-burden sub-districts in three provinces, over an 18 month period during which new South African PMTCT clinical guidelines were implemented and a(More)
Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on(More)
The Australian Mesothelioma Surveillance Program was planned in 1977 in order to improve diagnostic criteria, to monitor the incidence of the disease, to develop methods of counting lung fibres, and to explore occupational and other associations of mesothelioma. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of data that were collected between January 1, 1980(More)
BACKGROUND There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC) facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults(More)
INTRODUCTION A large increase in lay health care workers has occurred in response to shortages of professional health care staff in sub-Saharan African antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs. However, little effectiveness data of the large-scale implementation of these programs is available. We evaluated the effect of a community-based adherence-support(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-positive children in low-income settings face many challenges to adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and have increased mortality on treatment compared to children in developed countries. Adult ART programmes have demonstrated benefit from community support to improve treatment outcomes; however, there are no empirical data on the(More)
This study assessed the impact of a community-based adherence support service on the outcomes of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The evaluation was a retrospective study based on patient clinical records. This study noted that a significantly higher proportion of patients with a community-based adherence supporter (also known as a patient(More)
BACKGROUND Most mutations detected for the gene for CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are either relatively specific to different population groups or rarely observed in Africans. OBJECTIVES To develop a comprehensive mutation detection assay for the entire coding region of CCR5 and to identify novel mutations that may play a role in genetic susceptibility(More)
Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is a challenge in childhood, and children on ART have reduced virological suppression compared to adults. This study evaluated the effect of community-based adherence support (CBAS) on virological outcomes amongst children receiving ART in four South African provinces. Patient Advocates are lay CBAS workers who(More)
Traditional ethics provide insight, but often fall short of guiding the complex biomedical ethical concerns of research conducted in developing countries. The need to create research within a framework that is appropriate to the social, medical, and political context of developing countries is examined through the current AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan(More)