Learn More
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gamma-herpesvirus, can establish both nonproductive (latent) and productive (lytic) infections. Although the CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to latently infected cells is well characterized, very little is known about T cell controls over lytic infection; this imbalance in our understanding belies the importance(More)
Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we(More)
Ocular surgeries and trauma predispose the eye to develop infectious endophthalmitis, which often leads to vision loss. The mechanisms of initiation of innate defense in this disease are not well understood but are presumed to involve retinal glial cells. We hypothesize that retinal Muller glia can recognize and respond to invading pathogens via TLRs, which(More)
CD44 plays a crucial role in cell migration, inflammation, and immune responses. Alteration in the levels of CD44 expression on monocytic cells by endotoxins and immunoregulatory cytokines may modulate the migration of immune cells to inflammatory sites and the development of immune responses. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor(More)
Cytokines are critical coordinators of the immune response necessary for resolving bacterial and viral assaults on the immune system. In particular, the IL-12 family of cytokines are key players in the regulation of T cell responses. These responses are orchestrated by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells which produce the members of the IL-12 family(More)
Sphingadienes (SDs) derived from soy and other natural sphingolipids are cytotoxic to colon cancer cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism and reduce adenoma formation in Apc(Min/+) mice. Wnt signaling is fundamental to colon carcinogenesis and is the basis for spontaneous tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice and patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. In(More)
The application of the fields of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics to vaccine design has been recently labeled 'vaccinomics'. This newly named area of vaccine research, heavily intertwined with bioinformatics, seems to be leading the charge in developing novel vaccines for currently unmet medical needs against hypervariable viruses such as human(More)
The anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 plays an important role in HIV immunopathogenesis. The HIV accessory protein, Tat is not only critical for viral replication, but affects the host immune system by influencing cytokine production including IL-10. During HIV infection, IL-10 production by monocytic cells is up-regulated, representing a critical pathway(More)
The injurious consequences of ionizing radiation (IR) to normal human cells and the acquired radioresistance of cancer cells represent limitations to cancer radiotherapy. IR induces DNA damage response pathways that orchestrate cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis such that irradiated cells are either repaired or eliminated. Concomitantly and(More)