Ashok Kumar Chakraborty

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Systemically administered tumor-targeted Salmonella has been developed as an anticancer agent, although its use could be limited by the potential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated septic shock stimulated by lipid A. Genetic modifications of tumor-targeting Salmonella that alter lipid A and increase safety must, however, retain the(More)
The causes of metastasis remain elusive despite vast information on cancer cells. We posit that cancer cell fusion with macrophages or other migratory bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) provides an explanation. BMDC-tumour hybrids have been detected in numerous animal models and recently in human cancer. Molecular studies indicate that gene expression in(More)
Studies were conducted on the hypothesis that melanoma metastasis might be initiated through the gener-ation of hybrids comprised of cells of the primary tumor and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Fusion hybrids were generated in vitro between weakly metastatic Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells and normal mouse or human macrophages. Hybrids were implanted(More)
Melanin synthesis of follicular melanocytes is strictly coupled to the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen), ceases during follicle regression (catagen), and is absent throughout the resting stage (telogen). Having previously characterized the expression and activity of melanogenesis-related proteins during the telogen-anagen transition of the murine(More)
UNLABELLED Resistance and partial responses to targeted monotherapy are major obstacles in cancer treatment. Systematic approaches to identify efficacious drug combinations for cancer are not well established, especially in the context of genotype. To address this, we have tested pairwise combinations of an array of small-molecule inhibitors on(More)
Hepatic damage caused by chronic exposure to arsenic has been frequently described. Here we report on 13 patients from West Bengal, India, who consumed large amounts of arsenic in drinking water. An epidemiological investigation of the study area showed evidence of chronic arsenical dermatosis and hepatomegaly in 62 (92.5%) of 67 members of families who(More)
It is demonstrated that ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation stimulates increased expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene which is accompanied by production and release of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) by both normal and malignant human melanocytes and keratinocytes. The production and release of both(More)
Evidence is provided that human skin, the largest body organ exposed to multiple stressors, expresses proopiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-receptor (CRHR) genes in vivo. In vitro studies show that POMC and CRHR mRNAs are transcribed in melanocytes, cells derived from the neural crest, and in keratinocytes, cells derived(More)
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) and HER2 display important signaling interactions in breast cancer. We examined the effect of combinations of antagonists of these receptors using two human breast cancer cell lines: BT474 (HER2+, IGFIR low) and MCF7 (HER2 low, IGFIR high). In BT474 cells, growth was inhibited by HER2 antagonists but not by(More)
Cells from a lung metastasis, arising from Cloudman S91 melanoma cells implanted s.c. in the tail of a BALB/c nu/nu mouse, were comprised chiefly of host x tumor hybrids. These lung metastasis cells showed: (a) 30-40% increased DNA content; (b) resistance to 10(-4) M hypoxanthine, 4 x 10(-7) M aminopterin, and 1.6 x 10(-5) M thymidine (HAT) + G418; and (c)(More)