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OBJECTIVE Accumulating evidence suggests an association between abnormalities of the basal ganglia and affective disorders. The authors hypothesized that patients with bipolar disorder would demonstrate smaller basal ganglia volumes and a greater number of hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging than comparison subjects who were matched on age, race,(More)
Delta-like 1homolog (Dlk1) is an imprinted gene encoding a transmembrane protein whose increased expression has been associated with muscle hypertrophy in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which Dlk1 regulates skeletal muscle plasticity remain unknown. Here we combine conditional gene knockout and over-expression analyses to investigate the role of(More)
Cerebral atrophy is a common radiologic manifestation of HIV dementia. To evaluate the relationship between cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy, adjusting for age and immune status, we used standardized planimetry to measure the ventricle-brain ratio (VBR) and the bifrontal (BFR) and bicaudate (BCR) ratios, three measures of cerebral atrophy. We(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy(More)
Following injury and inflammation, pain to light stroking (dynamic mechanical allodynia) might develop at the damaged site (primary area) or in adjacent normal tissue (secondary area). Using fMRI we mapped changes in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (spV), and supraspinal brainstem nuclei following heat/capsaicin-induced primary and secondary dynamic(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for studying the normal and diseased human brain. The application of fMRI in detecting neuronal signals in the trigeminal system, however, has been hindered by low detection sensitivity due to activation artifacts caused by cardiac pulse-induced brain and brainstem movement. A variety(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Conventional imaging techniques cannot be used to unambiguously and reliably differentiate malignant from benign vertebral compression fractures. Our hypothesis is that these malignant and benign vertebral lesions can be better distinguished on the basis of tissue apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). The purpose of this study was(More)
It is a crucial tool for academicians, researchers, and practitioners and is ideal forclassroom use. He has teaching experience on algorith-mic and architectural aspects of game engine design along with other courses such as computer architecture, operating systems, and embedded systems. He has several years of academic and industrial experience with(More)
Patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alone or in combination with irinotecan have had impressive reductions in MRI contrast enhancement and vasogenic edema. Responses to this regimen, as defined by a decrease in contrast enhancement, have led to significant(More)
The ex vivo effects of passive mechanical stretch on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathways in skeletal muscles from normal and mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), were investigated. The NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity of the diaphragm muscle was increased by the application of axial mechanical stretch in a(More)