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In an attempt to find the genes involved in salt tolerance of the highly adaptable chickpea rhizobium strain, Mesorhizobium ciceri Ca181, a Tn5 transposon insertion library was generated and screened to identify five mutants with inability to survive in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl. The genes disrupted in these mutants due to insertion of the transposon were(More)
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (“Holy Basil”/“Tulsi”) is an indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plant of India, widely distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions. Plant is well known for its enormous therapeutic activities and prevention against diseases. In the present study, thirty-two accessions of O. tenuiflorum germplasm collected from different regions of(More)
Cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer's disease are accompanied by a number of alterations in other transmitter systems including glutamate, noradrenaline and serotonin, suggesting the involvement also of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of the disease. To address the question whether beta-amyloid may contribute to these deficits, brain tissue(More)
We have previously shown that, in response to microbial infection, activated Müller glia secrete inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and exhibit antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanisms and the key components involved in this response. Immortalized human retinal Müller glia (MIO-M1 cells) were challenged with(More)
Ocular surgeries and trauma predispose the eye to develop infectious endophthalmitis, which often leads to vision loss. The mechanisms of initiation of innate defense in this disease are not well understood but are presumed to involve retinal glial cells. We hypothesize that retinal Muller glia can recognize and respond to invading pathogens via TLRs, which(More)
In the present study we tested the responsiveness of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and corneal fibroblasts to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. Purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS was used to stimulate telomerase-immortalized HCECs (HUCL) and stromal fibroblast (THK) cell lines. Exposure of cells to LPS induced a(More)
BACKGROUND The bacterial protein flagellin plays a major role in stimulating mucosal surface innate immune response to bacterial infection and uniquely induces profound cytoprotection against pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. This study sought to determine signaling pathways responsible for the flagellin-induced inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on(More)
Muller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina and have a unique anatomy, with processes that span the entire retinal thickness. Although extensive morphological and physiological studies of Muller glia have been performed, much less is known about their role in retinal innate immunity, specifically in infectious endophthalmitis. They were(More)
The immune system in the gastrointestinal tract plays a crucial role in the control of infection, as it constitutes the first line of defense against mucosal pathogens. The attractive features of oral immunization have led to the exploration of a variety of oral delivery systems. However, none of these oral delivery systems have been applied to existing(More)
Immunoblot and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to evaluate and compare IgG antibodies against S. aureus whole cell lysate, cell wall peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid to discriminate between deep-seated and superficial S. aureus infection. Serum samples were examined from patients with deep-seated (n = 25) and superficial (n = 25) S.(More)