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The current morphological classification of the Demospongiae G4 clade was tested using large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) sequences from 119 taxa. Fifty-three mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) barcoding sequences were also analysed to test whether the 28S phylogeny could be recovered using an independent gene. This is the largest and most(More)
Southern Ocean biodiversity reflects past climate, oceanographic, and tectonic changes. Molecular data from contemporary populations carry signatures of these processes. Here, we review new molecular studies on Southern Ocean benthic fauna. Many of these studies focus on species with extensive geographic or bathymetric distributions, and resolve taxonomic(More)
Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2 kb of(More)
The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been developed to measure the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has autistic traits. Although use of the AQ has resulted in a number of important findings, few studies have assessed whether scores predict cognitive aspects of ASD. This study assessed whether AQ scores predicted performance on an adapted(More)
Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci are described for Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758). Data on allelic variation in Irish and Celtic Sea samples are reported. The average number of alleles per locus was 11 (range 4–29), and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 6.9 to 84.3% and from 9.4 to 95.2%, respectively. Loci did not deviate from(More)
Sponge classification has long been based mainly on morphocladistic analyses but is now being greatly challenged by more than 12 years of accumulated analyses of molecular data analyses. The current study used phylogenetic hypotheses based on sequence data from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and the CO1 barcoding fragment, combined with morphology to justify the(More)
Eighteen dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from two octopus species, Pareledone turqueti and Pareledone charcoti, which are endemic to the Southern Ocean. Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of P. charcoti and P. turqueti from Elephant Island and Shag Rocks respectively. All except one locus (which has proved to be polymorphic in other(More)
To determine the pattern of spatial genetic structure in the endemic Southern Ocean octopus Adelieledone polymorpha, microsatellite loci were isolated from partial genomic libraries enriched for repetitive DNA motifs. Seven dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated successfully and levels of polymorphism were quantified in 34(More)
Repeated cycles of glaciation have had major impacts on the distribution of genetic diversity of the Antarctic marine fauna. During glacial periods, ice cover limited the amount of benthic habitat on the continental shelf. Conversely, more habitat and possibly altered seaways were available during interglacials when the ice receded and the sea level was(More)
We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta(More)