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The basic treatment goals of pharmacological therapies in sleep medicine are to improve waking function by either improving sleep or by increasing energy during wakefulness. Stimulants to improve waking function include amphetamine derivatives, modafinil, and caffeine. Sleep aids encompass several classes, from benzodiazepine hypnotics to over-the-counter(More)
Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using(More)
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