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Exposure to diesel exhaust may contribute to lung cancer in humans. It remains unclear whether the carbonaceous core of the soot particle or its coat of adsorbed/condensed organics contributes most to cancer risk. Equally unclear are the extent and rate at which organic procarcinogens desorb from soot particles in the lungs following inhalation exposure and(More)
Two inbred mouse strains, CBA/J and CBA/CaJ, have been used nearly interchangeably as 'good hearing' standards for research in hearing and deafness. We recently reported, however, that these two strains diverge after 1 year of age, such that CBA/CaJ mice show more rapid elevation of compound action potential (CAP) thresholds at high frequencies (Ohlemiller,(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is used in the manufacture of styrene-BD and polybutadiene rubber. Differences seen in chronic toxicity studies in the susceptibility of B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to BD raise the question of how to use the rodent toxicology data to predict the health risk of BD in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are(More)
Species differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene (BD) have been studied in an effort to explain the major differences observed in the responses of mice, the sensitive species, and rats, the resistant species, to the toxicity of inhaled BD. BD is metabolized by the same metabolic pathways in all species studied, but there are major species differences(More)
Exposure to diesel exhaust is a suspected risk factor for human lung cancer. The carbonaceous core of the soot particles found in diesel exhaust and the condensed organic compounds adsorbed (or bound) onto the surface of the particles are both possible contributors to this suspected risk. The extent and rate at which organic procarcinogens desorb from soot(More)
Recent chronic inhalation carcinogenicity studies of butadiene indicated that B6C3F1 mice are more sensitive to the tumorigenic effects of inhaled butadiene than are Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors in mice included lymphomas, hemangiosarcomas, alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas, and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas whereas in rats tumors(More)
The chronic (2-yr) inhalation toxicity of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a chemical used in large quantities to make rubber and plastics, differs greatly between mice and rats. Mice develop lung tumors after exposures to concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, whereas rats develop mammary tumors only after exposures to 1000-8000 ppm BD. Extensive research has been carried(More)
Enzymes of the nasal tissue, one of the first tissues to contact inhaled toxicants, are relatively resistant to induction by traditional inducers. Because tobacco smoke has been shown to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in rat and human lung tissue, we hypothesized that it would also alter levels of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in nasal mucosae. In(More)
While tobacco smoke has been conclusively identified as a lung carcinogen, there is much debate over which smoke constituent(s) are primarily responsible for its carcinogenicity. Previous studies in our laboratory suggested that highly lipophilic carcinogens are slowly absorbed in the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways, potentially allowing for(More)