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Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) belonging to the PDE4 family control intracellular concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by catalyzing its hydrolysis. Four separate PDE4 genes (PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C, and PDE4D) have been identified. PDE4 has been reported to be involved in various central nervous system (CNS) functions including depression,(More)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complexes from Gram-negative bacteria consists of three enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase/decarboxylase (E1p), dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). The acetyltransferase harbors all properties required for multi-enzyme catalysis: it forms a large core of 24 subunits, it contains(More)
Ceramide and ceramide-1-phosphate are sphingolipid analogues of diacylglycerol and phosphatidate, respectively, and they are putative second messengers of agonist-stimulated sphingomyelin metabolism. The interactions of exogenous cell-permeable ceramides and ceramide-1-phosphates in modifying DNA synthesis and signal transduction were investigated in Rat-1(More)
Assays for two distinct phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities were established based upon a differential inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The activity that is insensitive to this reagent in rat liver is predominantly in the plasma membrane fraction, whereas the NEM-sensitive activity is in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions. The NEM-insensitive(More)
In eukaryotes, many receptor agonists use phospholipase-generated lipids as intracellular messengers. Receptor occupation stimulates the production of polyunsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerols by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate specific phospholipases C and/or of mono-unsaturated and saturated phosphatidates by phospholipase-D-catalysed phosphatidylcholine(More)
UNLABELLED The goal of this study was to examine the apparent differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between two groups of normal individuals who received either of the two tracers, 99mTc-D,L-hexamethylpropylene amine oxide (99mTc-HMPAO, or exametazime) or 99mTc-ethylene-dicysteine diethylester (99mTc-ECD, or bicisate). METHODS Individuals(More)
Stimulation of cells with certain agonists often activates both phospholipases C and D. These generate diacylglycerol and phosphatidate, respectively, although the two lipids are also apparently interconvertable through the actions of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and diacylglycerol kinase. Diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C while one role for(More)
The phenotype of genetically modified animals is strongly influenced by both the genetic background of the animal as well as environmental factors. We have previously reported the behavioral and neurochemical characterization of PDE10A knockout mice maintained on a DBA1LacJ (PDE10A(DBA)) genetic background. The aim of the present studies was to assess the(More)
1. SCA40 (1nM-10 microM), isoprenaline (1-300 nM) and levcromakalim (100 nM-10 microM) each produced concentration-dependent suppression of the spontaneous tone of guinea-pig isolated trachea. Propranolol (1 microM) markedly (approximately 150 fold) antagonized isoprenaline but did not antagonize SCA40. The tracheal relaxant action of SCA40 was unaffected(More)