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Several of the thousands of human long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been functionally characterized; however, potential roles for lncRNAs in somatic tissue differentiation remain poorly understood. Here we show that a 3.7-kilobase lncRNA, terminal differentiation-induced ncRNA (TINCR), controls human epidermal differentiation by a post-transcriptional(More)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate diverse processes, yet a potential role for lncRNAs in maintaining the undifferentiated state in somatic tissue progenitor cells remains uncharacterized. We used transcriptome sequencing and tiling arrays to compare lncRNA expression in epidermal progenitor populations versus differentiating cells. We identified ANCR(More)
Upregulation of the ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade occurs in >30% of cancers, often through mutational activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or other upstream genes, including KRAS and BRAF. Efforts to target endogenous MAPKs are challenged by the fact that these kinases are required for viability in mammals. Additionally, the(More)
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome comprise the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs), disorders notable for their clinical heterogeneity that can present in skin or peripheral blood. Effective treatment options for CTCL are limited, and the genetic basis of these T cell lymphomas remains incompletely characterized. Here we report recurrent(More)
Thousands of putative enhancers are characterized in the human genome, yet few have been shown to have a functional role in cancer progression. Inhibiting oncokinases, such as EGFR, ALK, ERBB2, and BRAF, is a mainstay of current cancer therapy but is hindered by innate drug resistance mediated by up-regulation of the HGF receptor, MET. The mechanisms(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.
OBJECTIVE To compare Doppler and oscillometric methods of indirect arterial blood pressure (IBP) with direct arterial measurements in anesthetized and awake red-tailed hawks. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, randomized, blinded study. ANIMALS Six, sex unknown, adult red-tailed hawks. METHODS Birds were anesthetized and IBP measurements were obtained by(More)
A geriatric male great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) that was a resident at a raptor center was presented for examination because of stridor and weight loss. Results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and biopsy were consistent with disseminated lymphoma involving the oropharynx, neck region (including thyroid and parathyroid glands), keel,(More)