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The history of life offers plentiful examples of convergent evolution, the independent derivation of similar phenotypes in distinct lineages. The emergence of convergent phenotypes among closely related lineages (frequently termed "parallel" evolution) is often assumed to result from changes in similar genes or developmental pathways, but the genetic(More)
Genetic alterations in human cancers and murine models indicate that retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 have critical tumor suppressive functions in retinoblastoma, a tumor of neural origin, and neuroendocrine tumors including small cell lung cancer and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Rb inactivation is the initiating lesion in retinoblastoma and current models(More)
PURPOSE The goal of this project was to evaluate an intervention on reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with nonpregnant American Indian women, with a focus on risky drinking and ineffective contraception use. DESIGN This study had a descriptive longitudinal study design, with follow-up every 3 months for 1 year. SETTING Three American Indian tribes in(More)
OBJECTIVE To sample women's exercise habits and beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy and to determine patient awareness and physician communication of ACOG's 2002 guidelines for exercise during pregnancy. METHODS A 28-item questionnaire was completed by 211 patients at a private obstetric and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) group practice during a 4-week study(More)
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