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A beta 1-40, a major component of Alzheimer's disease cerebral amyloid, is present in the cerebrospinal fluid and remains relatively soluble at high concentrations (less than or equal to 3.7 mM). Thus, physiological factors which induce A beta amyloid formation could provide clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. It has been shown that human A beta(More)
Genetic evidence strongly supports the view that Abeta amyloid production is central to the cause of Alzheimer's disease. The kinetics, compartmentation, and form of Abeta and its temporal relation to the neurodegenerative process remain uncertain. The levels of soluble and insoluble Abeta were determined by using western blot techniques, and the findings(More)
The secreted form of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain, also called protease nexin II, is internalized and degraded by cells. We show that the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) is responsible for the endocytosis of secreted APP. APPs770 degradation is inhibited by an LRP(More)
The past few years have witnessed dramatic progress on all frontiers of zinc neurobiology. The recent development of powerful tools, including zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, selective chelators and genetically modified animal models, has brought a deeper understanding of the roles of this cation as a crucial intra- and intercellular signalling ion of(More)
The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the(More)
The microtubule-associated protein tau has risk alleles for both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and mutations that cause brain degenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Aggregated tau forms neurofibrillary tangles in these pathologies, but little is certain about the function of tau or its mode of involvement in pathogenesis. Neuronal iron(More)
Increased brain metal levels have been associated with normal aging and a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copper and iron levels both show marked increases with age and may adversely interact with the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide causing its aggregation and the production of neurotoxic hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), contributing to(More)
Zinc transporter-3 (ZnT3) protein controls synaptic vesicular Zn(2+) levels, which is predicted to regulate normal cognitive function. Surprisingly, previous studies found that 6- to 10-week-old ZnT3 knock-out (KO) mice did not show impairment in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that older ZnT3 KO animals would display a cognitive phenotype. Here, we(More)
Studies on postmortem brains from Parkinson's patients reveal elevated iron in the substantia nigra (SN). Selective cell death in this brain region is associated with oxidative stress, which may be exacerbated by the presence of excess iron. Whether iron plays a causative role in cell death, however, is controversial. Here, we explore the effects of iron(More)