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The recently emerged swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) caused a pandemic outbreak in 2009 with higher risk of severe disease among children and pregnant women in their third trimester (Van Kerkhove et al., 2011), and is continuing to be important seasonal IAV strain. Mice are commonly used in antiviral studies as models of influenza disease, which(More)
Favipiravir is approved in Japan to treat novel or re-emerging influenza viruses, and is active against a broad spectrum of RNA viruses, including Ebola. Ribavirin is the only other licensed drug with activity against multiple RNA viruses. Recent studies show that ribavirin and favipiravir act synergistically to inhibit bunyavirus infections in cultured(More)
L-NG-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA) is an experimental compound that suppresses nitric oxide production in animals. The compound was combined with oseltamivir to treat lethal influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus infections in mice. Treatments were given twice a day for five days starting 4 h (oseltamivir, by oral gavage) or three days (L-NMMA,(More)
The treatment of progressive vaccinia in individuals has involved antiviral drugs, such as cidofovir (CDV), brincidofovir, and/or tecovirimat, combined with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG is costly, and its supply is limited, so sparing the use of VIG during treatment is an important objective. VIG sparing was modeled in immunosuppressed mice by(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection generally causes a debilitating arthritis in infected patients. Infection with CHIKV is generally not life-threatening and is associated with a mortality rate <0.1%. However, close to 100% of those infected will develop symptoms of disease, primarily involving swelling and pain of the joints, which can last for months or(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting a highly conserved region in the hemagglutinin (HA) stem protect against influenza infection. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of a protein (HB36.6) computationally designed to bind with high affinity to the same region in the HA stem. We show that intranasal delivery of HB36.6 affords protection in mice(More)
Recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have resulted in millions of cases of disease with significant morbidity. No approved antiviral treatments exist for the prevention or treatment of this viral disease. Infection with CHIKV results in a high rate of symptomatic disease that primarily includes a debilitating arthralgia. To model this(More)
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