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Escherichia coli has three DNA damage-inducible DNA polymerases: DNA polymerase II (Pol II), DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), and DNA polymerase V (Pol V). While the in vivo function of Pol V is well understood, the precise roles of Pol IV and Pol II in DNA replication and repair are not as clear. Study of these polymerases has largely focused on their(More)
A cyclic octapeptide (patellamide D) isolated from the marine tunicate, Lissaclinum patella, acts as a resistance-modifying agent in the multidrug resistant CEM/VLB100 human leukemic cell line. A three-day microculture tetrazolium proliferation assay was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for vinblastine, colchicine and adriamycin and(More)
Early research on the origins and mechanisms of mutation led to the establishment of the dogma that, in the absence of external forces, spontaneous mutation rates are constant. However, recent results from a variety of experimental systems suggest that mutation rates can increase in response to selective pressures. This chapter summarizes data demonstrating(More)
Stationary phase adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli is thought to be a mechanism by which mutation rates are increased during stressful conditions, increasing the possibility that fitness-enhancing mutations arise. Here we present data showing that the histone-like protein, HU, has a role in the molecular pathway by which adaptive Lac(+) mutants arise in(More)
Genome maintenance defects cause complex disease phenotypes characterized by developmental failure, cancer susceptibility and premature ageing. It remains poorly understood how DNA damage responses function during organismal development and maintain tissue functionality when DNA damage accumulates with ageing. Here we show that the FOXO transcription factor(More)
The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of(More)
Recent findings have identified highly transcribed genes as a source of genome instability; however, the degree to which large-scale shifts in transcriptional activity cause DNA damage was not known. One example of a large-scale shift in transcriptional activity occurs during development, when maternal regulators are destroyed and zygotic genome activation(More)
The critical need for species preservation has driven the evolution of mechanisms that integrate stress signals from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Past research has been largely focused on cell-autonomous stress responses; however, recently their systemic outcomes within an organism and their implications at the ecological and species levels have(More)