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Intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae is complemented by induction of macrophage apoptosis. Here, we show that the toxin pneumolysin (PLY) contributes both to lysosomal/phagolysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), an upstream event programing susceptibility to apoptosis, and to apoptosis execution via a mitochondrial pathway, through distinct(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Pneumococci can be divided into >90 serotypes that show differences in the pathogenicity and invasiveness. We tested the hypotheses that the innate immune inflammasome pathway is involved in fighting pneumococcal pneumonia and that some invasive pneumococcal types are not(More)
Central to the pathogenesis of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins directly into the cells of their eukaryotic host. EspF is one of many effector proteins exclusive to the attaching and effacing pathogen family that includes enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli. Work in recent years has(More)
Bacterial attachment to plant and animal surfaces is generally thought to constitute the initial step in colonization, requiring adherence factors such as flagella and fimbriae. We describe the molecular mechanism underpinning flagella-mediated adherence to plant tissue for the foodborne pathogen, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli H7(More)
The flagellum organelle is an intricate multiprotein assembly best known for its rotational propulsion of bacteria. However, recent studies have expanded our knowledge of other functions in pathogenic contexts, particularly adherence and immune modulation, e.g., for Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.(More)
BACKGROUND E. coli O157 carries two genes encoding the effector proteins NleH1 and NleH2 which are 87% identical. Despite the similarity between the proteins, the promoter regions upstream of the genes encoding the effectors are more divergent suggesting that the actual expression of the genes may be differentially regulated. This was tested by creating(More)
Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or(More)
Analysis of microbial gene expression during host colonization provides valuable information on the nature of interaction, beneficial or pathogenic, and the adaptive processes involved. Isolation of bacterial mRNA for in planta analysis can be challenging where host nucleic acid may dominate the preparation, or inhibitory compounds affect downstream(More)
Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana(More)
We surveyed 146 postpartum women who birthed at 34-37 6/7 weeks of gestation and intended to breastfeed about their use of and preferences regarding technology to obtain perinatal and breastfeeding support. Most participants owned smartphones and used technology during pregnancy to track pregnancy data, follow fetal development, address pregnancy concerns,(More)