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Recent evidence supports a role for genetics in autism, but other findings are difficult to reconcile with a purely genetic cause. Pathological changes in the cerebellum in autism are thought to correspond to an event before 30-32 weeks gestation. Our purpose was to determine whether there is an increased incidence of stressors in autism before this time(More)
Stress-induced activation of the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system produces significant cognitive and behavioral effects, including enhanced arousal and attention. Improvements in discrimination task performance and memory have been attributed to this stress response. In contrast, for other cognitive functions that require cognitive flexibility,(More)
Scenarios manipulating various factors within the emotion of embarrassment, such as whether or not an audience was present when an embarrassing act was committed, the type of audience present, empathic embarrassment, etc., were presented to high-functioning participants with autism and comparison groups of those with learning difficulties and typically(More)
OBJECTIVES Our purpose is to investigate cognitive performance and extrapyramidal function early after ecstasy use. BACKGROUND Ecstasy, containing 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has shown evidence of causing cognitive deficits and parkinsonian signs. Previous research has examined cognitive performance after a period of prolonged abstinence, but(More)
Previous research suggests that the noradrenergic system modulates certain types of cognitive flexibility. This study compared various doses of beta-adrenergic antagonists for their effect on cognitive flexibility in problem solving, and how task difficulty interacts with this effect, as well as the effect of beta-adrenergic antagonists on other tasks.(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to study the effect of semantic priming at varying semantic distances on brain activation during a lexical decision experiment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). BACKGROUND Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated decreased brain activation for primed versus unprimed stimuli in language areas due to semantic(More)
The noradrenergic system modulates performance on tasks dependent on semantic and associative network flexibility (NF) in individuals without neurodevelopmental diagnoses in experiments using a beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol. Some studies suggest drugs decreasing noradrenergic activity are beneficial in ASD. In individuals without(More)
Blunted facial expressions and diminished expressions of emotional prosody associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) could be attributed to motor rigidity/akinesia. Although impaired recognition of emotional faces and prosody in PD suggests emotional dysfunction is not entirely motor-efferent, comprehension might depend upon imitation with motor feedback.(More)
Previous research suggests that the noradrenergic system modulates flexibility of access to the lexical-semantic network, with propranolol benefiting normal subjects in lexical-semantic problem solving tasks. Patients with Broca's aphasia with anomia have impaired ability to access appropriate verbal output for a given visual stimulus in a naming task.(More)
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate impaired utilization of context, which allows for superior performance on the "false memory" task. We report the application of a simplified parallel distributed processing model of context utilization to the false memory task. For individuals without ASD, experiments support a model wherein(More)