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Novel flexible parylene-based high-density electrode arrays have been developed for functional electrical stimulation in retinal and spinal cord prosthetics. These arrays are microfabricated according to a single-metal-layer process and a revolutionary dual-metal-layer process that promises to meet the needs of extremely high-density stimulation(More)
Epiretinal prostheses are being developed to bypass a degenerated photoreceptor layer and excite surviving ganglion and inner retinal cells. We used custom microfabricated multielectrode arrays with 200-microm-diameter stimulating electrodes and 10-microm-diameter recording electrodes to stimulate and record neural responses in isolated tiger salamander(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the ability of 28 blind subjects implanted with a 60-electrode Argus II (Second Sight Medical Products Inc) retinal prosthesis system to detect the direction of a moving object. METHODS Blind subjects (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) with retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with the Argus II prosthesis as part of a(More)
As microelectrodes gain widespread use for electrochemical sensing, biopotential recording, and neural stimulation, it becomes important to understand the dependence of electrochemical impedance on microelectrode size. It has been shown mathematically that a disc electrode, coplanar in an insulating substrate and exposed to a conducting media, exhibits an(More)
Here we present a retrograde loading technique that makes it possible for the first time to rapidly load a calcium indicator in the majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in salamander retina, and then to observe physiological activity of these dye-loaded cells. Dextran-conjugated calcium indicator, dissolved in water, was applied to the optic nerve(More)
OBJECTIVE Epiretinal prostheses are designed to restore functional vision to the blind by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons. These devices have classically employed symmetric biphasic current pulses in order to maintain a balance of charge. Prior electrophysiological and psychophysical studies in peripheral nerve show that adding an(More)
Epiretinal prostheses for the blind bypass diseased photosensitive cells in the retina, directly stimulating retinal neurons electrically and evoking signals that are relayed to the brain. Current clinical implants have few electrodes and provide limited visual acuity. Acuity may be improved by identifying electrode array design features and operational(More)
With applied potential, the current distribution at the surface of a disk electrode is spatially nonuniform and time dependent. This distribution is important to control in applications that desire a uniform current density profile or minimal corrosion. We examine the current density profile of a capacitive disk electrode subjected to a voltage-step using(More)
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