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TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is an evolutionarily conserved heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) involved in RNA processing, whose abnormal cellular distribution and post-translational modification are key markers of certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We generated(More)
Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana (rejuvenation) and expected to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. Having wide range of activity, it is used to treat almost all disorders that affect(More)
The forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) are widely used as animal models for screening potential antidepressants. Immobility or despair behavior produced in both FST and TST are taken as paradigm of depression and antidepressant drugs reduce the immobility period. Recent studies have suggested dissimilar hemodynamic, behavioral,(More)
TDP-43 is a critical RNA-binding factor associated with pre-mRNA splicing in mammals. Its expression is tightly autoregulated, with loss of this regulation implicated in human neuropathology. We demonstrate that TDP-43 overexpression in humans and mice activates a 3' untranslated region (UTR) intron, resulting in excision of the proximal polyA site (PAS)(More)
Clinical studies have reported the beneficial outcome of addition of lower doses of risperidone to antidepressant therapy specifically with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depression. The present study, therefore, examined the beneficial effect, if any, of addition of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic) to the(More)
This unit describes a protocol to perform chemical kindling in mice. Kindling is a chronic animal model of epilepsy that has been extensively studied to understand the process of epileptogenesis and discover novel anti-epileptic compounds. Kindling is a phenomenon where a sub-convulsive stimulus (either chemical or electrical), if applied repetitively and(More)
The involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant action of venlafaxine (dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was investigated in mice. The antidepressant activity was assessed in forced swim test (FST) behavioral paradigm. Total immobility time was registered(More)
Nitric oxide has been known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of various disorders of the body. Despite its very short half-life, nitric oxide is known to modulate various neurotransmitter system(s) in the body and thus is speculated to play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. This "wonder" molecule has been(More)
Major depression, a debilitating psychiatric disorder, is predicted to be the second most prevalent human illness by the year 2020. Various antidepressants, ranging from monoamine oxidase inhibitors to recently developed dual reuptake inhibitors, are prescribed for alleviating the symptoms of depression. Despite the availability of these blockbuster(More)
The present study investigated the effects of neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) or pregnenolone sulfate (PS) on the tail-suspension test (TST) of depression in mice, and also the possible involvement of sigma (sigma) receptors. Immobility time in the TST was measured for a total period of 6 min. DHEAS (10 and 40 mg/kg, s.c.) or PS (40(More)