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The NCCN Guidelines™ are a statement of evidence and consensus of the authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult the NCCN Guidelines is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient's care or treatment. The(More)
Carfilzomib is a next-generation, selective proteasome inhibitor being evaluated for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. In this open-label, single-arm phase 2 study (PX-171-003-A1), patients received single-agent carfilzomib 20 mg/m(2) intravenously twice weekly for 3 of 4 weeks in cycle 1, then 27 mg/m(2) for ≤ 12 cycles. The(More)
The cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) involves a variety of mechanisms to repair damage and maintain cell survival. We previously reported that the proteasome activator PA200 promotes long-term cell survival after IR exposure. The molecular function of PA200 is to enhance proteasome-mediated cleavage after glutamate; however, it is not known how(More)
The proteasome has emerged as an important target for cancer therapy with the approval of bortezomib, a first-in-class, reversible proteasome inhibitor, for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, many patients have disease that does not respond to bortezomib, whereas others develop resistance, suggesting the need for other inhibitors with(More)
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) frequently present with concomitant renal dysfunction, and those requiring dialysis have particularly poor outcomes. Bortezomib is a reversible proteasome inhibitor with significant activity in MM. This retrospective case analysis evaluated the feasibility and activity of bortezomib-based therapy in MM patients (n = 24)(More)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell neoplasm that accounts for 10% of all malignant hematologic neoplasms and that affects terminally differentiated B cells (i.e., plasma cells). It is now well recognized that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine that promotes the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in MM. The IL-6 gene can be(More)
Sustained long-term antibody levels are the cornerstone of protective immunity, yet it remains unclear how they are durably maintained. A predominant theory implicates antigen-independent antibody production by a subset of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) that survive within bone marrow (BM). Central tenets of this model--that BM LLPCs constitute a subset(More)
Several cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with poor outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM). We prospectively analyzed the impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcomes during the phase 2 PX-171-003-A1 study of single-agent carfilzomib for relapsed and refractory MM. In the response-evaluable population (257/266), fluorescence in situ hybridization(More)
BACKGROUND Survivin is known playing a role in drug resistance. However, its role in bortezomib-mediated inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis is unclear. There are conflicting reports for the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, which lacks of a plausible explanation. METHODS In this study, we tested cancer cells with both p53 wild type(More)
This phase 2 trial was designed to evaluate ixazomib, an orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor, in patients with myeloma who have limited prior exposure to bortezomib. Thirty-three patients with relapsed multiple myeloma were enrolled. Ixazomib was given at 5.5 mg weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Dexamethasone was added for lack of a minor response (MR) by end(More)