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In this paper, we show the novel application of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) – conditional random fields with hidden state sequences – for modeling speech. Hidden state sequences are critical for modeling the non-stationarity of speech signals. We show that HCRFs can easily be trained using the simple direct optimization technique of stochastic(More)
Recommender systems are now popular both commercially and in the research community, where many approaches have been suggested for providing recommendations. In many cases a system designer that wishes to employ a recommendation system must choose between a set of candidate approaches. A first step towards selecting an appropriate algorithm is to decide(More)
This paper describes the research eeorts of the \Hidden Speaking Mode" group participating in the 1996 summer workshop on speech recognition. The goal of this project is to model pronunciation variations that occur in conversational speech in general and, more speciically, to investigate the use of a hidden speaking mode to represent systematic variations(More)
Recommender systems are now popular both commercially and in the research community, where many algorithms have been suggested for providing recommendations. These algorithms typically perform differently in various domains and tasks. Therefore, it is important from the research perspective, as well as from a practical view, to be able to decide on an(More)
We present a simplified derivation of the extended Baum-Welch procedure, which shows that it can be used for Maximum Mutual Information (MMI) of a large class of continuous emission density hidden Markov models (HMMs). We use the extended Baum-Welch procedure for discriminative estimation of MLLR-type speaker adaptation transformations. The resulting(More)
The EM algorithm is widely used to develop iterative parameter estimation procedures for statistical models. In cases where these procedures strictly follow the EM formulation, the convergence properties of the estimation procedures are well understood. In some instances there are practical reasons to develop procedures that do not strictly fall within the(More)
We introduce the Piecewise-Constant Conditional Intensity Model, a model for learning temporal dependencies in event streams. We describe a closed-form Bayesian approach to learning these models, and describe an importance sampling algorithm for forecasting future events using these models, using a proposal distribution based on Poisson superposition. We(More)
We investigate algorithms for training hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) - a class of direct models with hidden state sequences. We compare stochastic gradient ascent with the RProp algorithm, and investigate stochastic versions of RProp. We propose a new scheme for model flattening, and compare it to the state of the art. Finally we give(More)
PageRank computes the importance of each node in a directed graph under a random surfer model governed by a teleportation parameter. Commonly denoted alpha, this parameter models the probability of following an edge inside the graph or, when the graph comes from a network of web pages and links, clicking a link on a web page. We empirically measure the(More)