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Gap junctional communication plays an important role in various models of brain pathology, but the changes of gap junctions in Parkinsonism are still not understood. In this study, we show that a major gap junctional protein, connexin43 (Cx43), in astrocytes is enhanced both in a rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced with rotenone, a widely used(More)
Since gonadal female hormones act on and protect neurons, it is well known that the female brain is less vulnerable to stroke or other brain insults than the male brain. Although glial functions have been shown to affect the vulnerability of the brain, little is known if such a sex difference exists in glia, much less the mechanism that might cause(More)
UNLABELLED Aims/Introduction:  Morphological changes to corneal C-fibers in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients were visualized by corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The effects of prior glycemic control and blood pressure on morphological parameters were clarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS   Corneal nerve fibers were visualized by CCM in 38 Japanese type 1(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To study the correlation between sudomotor function, sweat gland duct size and corneal nerve fiber pathology in type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sudomotor function was quantified by Neuropad test, and sweat gland duct and corneal nerve fibers were visualized by confocal microscopy in 78 patients with type 2 diabetes stratified by(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION We compared the morphometric features of corneal epithelial basal cells between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy controls, and analyzed the relationship of these features with corneal nerve fiber pathology and clinical factors in the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Corneal epithelial basal cells and corneal nerve fibers(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To measure the elasticity of the tibial nerve using sonoelastography, and to associate it with diabetic neuropathy severity, the cross-sectional area of the tibial nerve and neurophysiological findings in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The elasticity of the tibial nerve was measured as the tibial nerve:acoustic coupler(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To evaluate the morphological changes of the median and posterior tibial nerve using high-resolution ultrasonography, and the corneal C fiber pathology by corneal confocal microscopy in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cross-sectional area, hypoechoic area and maximum thickness of the nerve fascicle of both nerves were(More)
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