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Many risk factors have been proposed for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, there is little information about the relationship between lifestyles and SLE in Japan. Two case control studies were conducted in Kyushu, southern Japan, and in Hokkaido, northern Japan, to examine the relationship between lifestyles and development of SLE in females. The(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to clarify risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in elderly Japanese women. METHODS We randomly selected 1600 women, aged between 65 and 74 years, from the resident registration of Sapporo City and we analyzed 746 women, who responded twice on surveys in 2010 and 2011. UI was defined as frequent UI when it occurred(More)
Ecological studies lack the ability to control for the effects of confounding factors. The findings of a linear relationship between average exposure and disease frequency in ecological studies do not imply that such a linear relationship will be present at the individual levels. This is known as the 'ecological fallacy'. Despite these limitations,(More)
BACKGROUND The proportion of Japanese adults aged 65 years or older is predicted to increase; thus, it is becoming more important to identify factors that influence health status among elderly adults in Japan. We conducted a follow-up study of community-dwelling elderly adults to assess the relationship of hobby activities with mortality and incident(More)
BACKGROUND In Asia there are few reports considering time intervals in the examination of clinical features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Therefore, we tried to compare the characteristics of patients with PBC in two different years. METHODS In two fiscal years (1999 and 2004), 9,761 and 13,142 patients with symptomatic PBC were registered to(More)
Confounding is a kind of bias which occurs in a research. Confounding is less frequent in randomized controlled trials (RCT) for evaluation of influenza vaccines. However, there are obstacles or difficulties in conducting RCT for evaluation of influenza vaccines, particularly, in the elderly people. Therefore, a retrospective or prospective cohort study has(More)
To investigate the relationship between dietary intake of minerals and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a case-control study was conducted in central Japan. A total of 278 referred patients (244 men and 34 women) aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years and 340 community-based controls undertook spirometric(More)
The present study was conducted in October 2003 to investigate the factors related to psychological stress and the heavy burden of caregivers taking care of frail elderly persons in the northern part of the Onga district, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. A total of 40 caregivers were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire involving the Japanese(More)
A dramatic increase in the number of elderly people in Japan has led to a concurrent increase in the number of frail elderly in need of care. It is estimated that the number of frail elderly will reach 3.9 million by the year 2010. Family members are often both physically and mentally burdened with caring for the frail elderly. The present study was(More)
Cross sectional studies were conducted in five towns in Japan before and after the introduction of the Long-term Care Insurance System (LTCIS), in order to evaluate the factors relating to depression among family caregivers for the frail elderly. Depressive caregivers were more likely to consult with their doctors, to be in poor health, to care for demented(More)