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In toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin is encoded by the CTX prophage, which consists of a core region carrying ctxAB genes and genes required for CTXPhi morphogenesis, and an RS2 region encoding regulation, replication, and integration functions. Integrated CTXPhi is often flanked by another genetic element known as RS1 which carries all open reading(More)
In toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the cholera enterotoxin (CT) is encoded by CTXPhi, a lysogenic bacteriophage. The propagation of this filamentous phage can result in the origination of new toxigenic strains. To understand the nature of possible environmental factors associated with the propagation of CTXPhi, we examined the effects of temperature, pH,(More)
DNA microarray analysis has previously revealed that hspA, which encodes a small heat-shock protein, is the second most highly expressed gene under salt stress in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Consequently, an hspA deletion mutant was studied under various salt stresses in order to identify a potential role of HspA in salt stress management. The mutant(More)
BACKGROUND Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 causes severe food-borne illness in humans. The chromosome of O157 consists of 4.1 Mb backbone sequences shared by benign E. coli K-12, and 1.4 Mb O157-specific sequences encoding many virulence determinants, such as Shiga toxin genes (stx genes) and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Non-O157(More)
In order to assess the extent of genomic diversity among Vibrio cholerae O139 strains, restriction fragment length polymorphisms in two genetic loci, rrn and ctx, were studied. Analysis of 144 strains isolated from different regions of Bangladesh and India between 1992 and 1998 revealed the presence of at least six distinct ribotypes (B-I through B-VI) of(More)
The heat shock response is generally characterized by an immediate, intense, and transient activation of gene expression, resulting in the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins. We found that light modulates these characteristics of the heat shock response in cyanobacteria. Light accelerated the heat induction of htpG, groESL1, groEL2, and hspA, in(More)
The cholera toxin genes of Vibrio cholerae are encoded by the filamentous phage, CTXphi. Chromosomal CTXphi prophage DNA is often found flanked by copies of a related genetic element designated RS1, and RS1 DNA can be packaged into filamentous phage particles (designated RS1phi) by using the CTXphi morphogenesis genes. RS1phi is a satellite phage that(More)
Sixty-four representative strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 were analyzed, to re-examine the origin of this serogroup. Ribotyping differentiated the strains into 3 HindIII and 7 BglI ribotypes. One HindIII and 5 BglI ribotypes were shared by all toxigenic O139 strains. Of 6 nontoxigenic O139 strains, 3 shared ribotypes with the toxigenic strains, carried(More)
Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains are lysogens of CTXPhi, a filamentous phage which encodes cholera toxin. The receptor for CTXPhi for invading V. cholerae cells is the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), the genes for which reside in a larger genetic element, the TCP pathogenicity island. We analyzed 146 CTX-negative strains of V. cholerae O1 or non-O1 isolated(More)
The filamentous bacteriophage CTXPhi, which encodes cholera toxin (CT) in toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, is known to propagate by infecting susceptible strains of V. cholerae by using the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) as its receptor and thereby causing the origination of new strains of toxigenic V. cholerae from nontoxigenic progenitors. Besides V. cholerae,(More)