Asad Zaman

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We estimate the impact on pilgrims of performing the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Our method compares successful and unsuccessful applicants in a lottery used by Pakistan to allocate Hajj visas. Pilgrim accounts stress that the Hajj leads to a feeling of unity with fellow Muslims, but outsiders have sometimes feared that this could be accompanied by antipathy(More)
We draw on a newly collected historical dataset of fiscal variables for a large panel of countries— to our knowledge, the most comprehensive database currently available—to gauge the degree of fiscal prudence or profligacy for each country over the past several decades. Specifically, our dataset consists of fiscal revenues, primary expenditures, the(More)
Muslim economists should rightly believe that they need to develop their own framework for economic analysis of human behavior. This is needed not only to get more realistic insight into the economic behavior of man, but also to understand the divine commandments about the behavior and their role in improving economic conditions for the human existence in(More)
Cerebral metabolism and neuronal function of prefrontal brain cortex were studied in 6 dog litters from birth to 3 months of age. Noninvasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) was used to observe longitudinal biochemical changes in the phosphorus compounds associated with cerebral metabolism. Neurological tests, examining reflex, motor(More)
Seizure susceptibility during recovery from hypercapnia was investigated in seven anesthetized neonatal dogs; 13, 20, or 30% CO2 gas was administered for 30 min through a ventilator to result in three levels of hypercapnia in which measured PaCO2 values were approximately 70, 100, and 140 mm Hg. Thereafter, the animals were allowed to recover for 45 min;(More)
At 14 days of age, seven mongrel puppies were anesthetized and bilateral carotid arteries, not only the common but also the external and internal carotid arteries, were ligated with sutures. Seven sham-operated littermates served as controls. They were sacrificed at 3 months of age, and their brains were examined macro- and microscopically.(More)
The large majority of the criteria for model selection are functions of the ^ 2 , the usual variance estimate for a regression model. The validity of the usual variance estimate depends on some assumptions, most critically the validity of the model being estimated. This is often violated in model selection contexts, where model search takes place over(More)
This note argues that the competitive paradigm of neoclassical economics breaks down in the presence of constant returns to scale (CRS). With CRS, all goods can be produced at identical unit costs by all economic agents, making self-production a feasible alternative to market production. In the event, an infinite number of equilibria become possible with a(More)
We investigated the temporal relationship of the emergence of biochemical abnormalities to the development of behavioral dysfunction to identify the central factors of ischemic neurological disorders in developing brains. To induce early ischemia, bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) was surgically performed on 21 cats at the second week of age. BCAO(More)
Because the assumption of normality is crucial for many types of statistical inference, there are hundreds of test for normality in the literature. Comparison of tests via simulations and other methods has not proven very fruitful or informative, because each test has its area of strengths and weaknesses. The comparisons depend critically on the(More)