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BACKGROUND Inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharides and also recognizes cellular fibronectin and heat shock protein 60, endogenous peptides that are produced in response to tissue injury. To explore a possible role for this receptor in arterial obstructive(More)
BACKGROUND Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is closely associated with desmosomal mutations in a majority of patients. Arrhythmogenesis in patients with AC is likely related to remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and increased levels of fibrosis. Recently, using experimental models, we also identified sodium channel dysfunction secondary to desmosomal(More)
BACKGROUND Chlamydia pneumoniae has been suggested to play a role in the origin of atherosclerosis. We studied the prevalence of C pneumoniae at multiple locations in the arterial system within the same individual. Studying the association between atherosclerosis and C pneumoniae within the individual excludes confounding by interindividual variability. (More)
BACKGROUND During the last decade, whole slide images (WSI) have been used in many areas of pathology such as teaching, research, digital archiving, teleconsultation and quality assurance testing. However, WSI have not regularly been used for routine diagnosis, because of the lack of validation studies. AIM To test the validity of using WSI for primary(More)
Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is one of the most common congenital heart defects with a population prevalence of 0.5% to 1.3%. Identifying patients with BAV is clinically relevant because BAV is associated with aortic stenosis, endocarditis and ascending aorta pathology. Methods and Results Patients with severe aortic stenosis necessitating aortic(More)
INTRODUCTION Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA) are rare but may be accompanied with significant morbidity. Previous studies mostly focused on diagnostic imaging and treatment. In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanisms and natural course of ECAA are largely unknown. Understanding the pathophysiological background may add to prediction of risk(More)
OBJECTIVE Angiogenesis and inflammation are important features in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and is also involved in inflammatory reactions. We studied HIF-1 alpha expression in different atherosclerotic plaque phenotypes. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of patients at risk for primary and secondary manifestations of atherosclerotic disease progression is based mainly on established risk factors. The atherosclerotic plaque composition is thought to be an important determinant of acute cardiovascular events, but no prospective studies have been performed. The objective of the(More)
Molecular pathology is becoming more and more important in present day pathology. A major challenge for any molecular test is its ability to reliably detect mutations in samples consisting of mixtures of tumor cells and normal cells, especially when the tumor content is low. The minimum percentage of tumor cells required to detect genetic abnormalities is a(More)