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The brain is unique among organs in many respects, including its mechanisms of lipid synthesis and energy production. The nervous system-specific metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which is synthesized from aspartate and acetyl-coenzyme A in neurons, appears to be a key link in these distinct biochemical features of CNS metabolism. During early postnatal(More)
This study explores the role of mevalonate inhibitors in the activation of NF-kbeta and the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) in rat primary astrocytes, microglia, and macrophages. Lovastatin and sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) were found to inhibit LPS- and cytokine-mediated production of NO and(More)
Genetic mutations that severely diminish the activity of aspartoacylase (ASPA) result in the fatal brain dysmyelinating disorder, Canavan disease. There is no effective treatment. ASPA produces free acetate from the concentrated brain metabolite, N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Because acetyl coenzyme A is a key building block for lipid synthesis, we postulated(More)
Mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase (ASPA), which catalyzes deacetylation of N-acetyl-L-aspartate in the central nervous system (CNS), result in Canavan Disease, a fatal dysmyelinating disease. Consistent with its role in supplying acetate for myelin lipid synthesis, ASPA is thought to be cytoplasmic. Here we describe the occurrence of ASPA within(More)
Canavan disease (CD) is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by inactivation of the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA, EC 3.5.1.15) due to mutations. ASPA releases acetate by deacetylation of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a highly abundant amino acid derivative in the central nervous system. CD results in spongiform degeneration of the brain and(More)
Nitric oxide produced by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in different cells including brain cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathophysiology of stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. The present study underlines the importance of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and 2A in the regulation of the differential(More)
Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase-1 (AceCS1) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A from acetate and coenzyme A and is thought to play diverse roles ranging from fatty acid synthesis to gene regulation. By using an affinity-purified antibody generated against an 18-mer peptide sequence of AceCS1 and a polyclonal antibody directed against recombinant AceCS1(More)
Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal dysmyelinating genetic disorder associated with aspartoacylase deficiency, resulting in decreased brain acetate levels and reduced myelin lipid synthesis in the developing brain. Here we tested tolerability of a potent acetate precursor, glyceryl triacetate (GTA), at low doses in two infants diagnosed with CD, aged 8 and 13(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a risk factor for many human diseases, but among exposed individuals, not everyone is equally likely to develop HCMV-spurred diseases, implying the presence of host genetic factors that might modulate immunity to this virus. Here, we show that antibody responsiveness to HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) is significantly associated(More)
Ž. Pineal melatonin synthesis serotonin ™ N-acetylserotonin ™ melatonin is severely compromised in most inbred strains of mice, in Ž. many cases because serotonin is not acetylated by serotonin N-acetyltransferase arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT. We have found that in the C57BLr6J strain, AANAT mRNA encodes a severely truncated AANAT protein,(More)