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This paper presents processing and visualization techniques for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI). In DT-MRI, each voxel is assigned a tensor that describes local water diffusion. The geometric nature of diffusion tensors enables us to quantitatively characterize the local structure in tissues such as bone, muscle, and white matter of the(More)
We present a new algorithm for the nonrigid registration of three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) intraoperative image sequences showing brain shift. The algorithm tracks key surfaces of objects (cortical surface and the lateral ventricles) in the image sequence using a deformable surface matching algorithm. The volumetric deformation field of the(More)
The vasculature is of utmost importance in neurosurgery. Direct visualization of images acquired with current imaging modalities, however, cannot provide a spatial representation of small vessels. These vessels, and their branches which show considerable variations, are most important in planning and performing neurosurgical procedures. In planning they(More)
We present a software package which uniquely integrates several facets of image-guided medicine into a single portable, extendable environment. It provides capabilities for automatic registration, semi-automatic segmentation, 3D surface model generation, 3D visualization, and quantitative analysis of various medical scans. We describe its system(More)
OBJECTIVE A major shortcoming of image-guided navigational systems is the use of preoperatively acquired image data, which does not account for intraoperative changes in brain morphology. The occurrence of these surgically induced volumetric deformations ("brain shift") has been well established. Maximal measurements for surface and midline shifts have been(More)
The increased use of image-guided surgery systems during neurosurgery has brought to prominence the inaccuracies of conventional intraoperative navigation systems caused by shape changes such as those due to brain shift. We propose a method to track the deformation of the brain and update preoperative images using intraoperative MR images acquired at(More)
We aimed to study the performance of a parallel implementation of an intraoperative nonrigid registration algorithm that accurately simulates the biomechanical properties of the brain and its deformations during surgery. The algorithm was designed to allow for improved surgical navigation and quantitative monitoring of treatment progress in order to improve(More)
PURPOSE The urge to void generally increases with bladder distention but the relationship between the 2 factors is complex. When the bladder is moderately filled, the desire to void can be called forth deliberately but it can also be suppressed. To elucidate human brain mechanisms that are active during such intentional modulations of the desire to void we(More)
A surgical guidance and visualization system is presented, which uniquely integrates capabilities for data analysis and on-line interventional guidance into the setting of interventional MRI. Various pre-operative scans (T1- and T2-weighted MRI, MR angiography, and functional MRI (fMRI)) are fused and automatically aligned with the operating field of the(More)
OBJECTIVE The complex three-dimensional anatomic features of the brain and its vulnerability to surgical intervention make the surgical treatment of intracranial tumors challenging. We evaluated the surgical treatment of supratentorial tumors using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides real-time guidance, allows localization of(More)