Arvind Varma

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Metabolic by-product secretion is commonly observed in oxygen-limited cultures. Oxygen limitations occur because of limits in the capacity of the respiratory system or because of the oxygenation limits of the cultivation method used. The latter restriction is of considerable practical importance since it results in a critical cell concentration above which(More)
Metabolism of living cells converts substrates into metabolic energy, redox potential and metabolic end products that are essential to maintain cellular function. The flux distribution among the various biochemical pathways is determined by the kinetic properties of enzymes which are subject to strict regulatory control. Simulation of metabolic behavior(More)
Microbial metabolism provides at mechanism for the conversion of substrates into useful biochemicals. Utilization of microbes in industrial processes requires a modification of their natural metabolism in order to increase the efficiency of the desired conversion. Redirection of metabolic fluxes forms the basis of the newly defined field of metabolic(More)
Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general(More)
The effect of serum on cell growth and monoclonal antibody (MAb) productivity was studied in a repeated fedbatch mode using both free-suspended and immobilized S3H5/gamma2bA2 hybridoma cells. In the suspension culture, serum influenced the cell growth rate but not the specific MAb productivity. The average specific growth rate of the suspension culture in(More)
The simultaneous growth and product formation in a microbial culture is an important feature of several laboratory, industrial, and environmental bioprocesses. Metabolic burden associated with product formation in these bioprocesses may lead to growth advantage of a nonproducing mutant leading to a loss of the producing population over time. A simple(More)
Purpose Ipilimumab increases antitumor T-cell responses by binding to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. We evaluated treatment with ipilimumab in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without visceral metastases. Patients and Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, phase III(More)
Stoichiometrically based flux balance models provide a method to quantify the metabolic pathway fluxes within a living cell. Predictions of flux balance models are expected to have applications in pathway engineering as well as in bioprocess design and control. These models utilize optimality principles applied to metabolic pathway stoichiometry along with(More)
A simple dynamic model has been applied to explain the population dynamics of monoclonal antibody (MAb) producing (producer) and nonproducing hybridoma cells (nonproducer) coexisting in culture. The events of mutation or loss of genes associated with antibody synthesis have been incorporated into the model to account for the conversion of a producer to a(More)